Goëtzër claim to Roman succession

From Empire of Karnia-Ruthenia
Emperor Charlemagne, by Albrecht Dürer, 1511–1513.

After the House Law of the Karno-Ruthenian Imperial Family, the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha formally laid claim to be the legitimate Roman emperors, in what the law called loyal opposition to the possible claim of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine to the title of Holy Roman Emperor.

Being descendants of the inaugural dynasty of Kings of Hungary and having Rudolf of Rheinfelden as ancestor (Anti-King from 15 March 1077 to 15 October 1080), with no active will of the current Habsburgs dynasts in claim the position and with some micronationalists with feeble claims to the Holy Roman throne, the imperial family of Karnia-Ruthenia decided to claim the title for historical purposes, but also for cultural-related reasons, as much to have their Karno-Ruthenian claim to imperial rank strengthened by this bond with the Holy Roman Imperial succession.

Holy Roman Emperor[edit | edit source]

The concept of the Roman Empire was renewed in the West with the coronation of the king of the Franks, Charlemagne, as Roman emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800. This coronation had its roots in the decline of influence of the Pope in the affairs of the Byzantine Empire at the same time the Byzantine Empire declined in influence over politics in the West. The Pope saw no advantage to be derived from working with the Byzantine Empire, but as George Ostrogorsky points out, "an alliance with the famous conqueror of the Lombards, on the other hand ... promised much".[1]

The immediate response of the Eastern Roman emperor was not welcoming. "At that time it was axiomatic that there could be only one Empire as there could be only one church", writes Ostrogorsky. "The coronation of Charles the Great violated all traditional ideas and struck a hard blow at Byzantine interests, for hitherto Byzantium, the new Rome, had unquestionably been regarded as the sole Empire which had taken over the inheritance of the old Roman imperium. Conscious of its imperial rights, Byzantium could only consider the elevation of Charles the Great to be an act of usurpation."[2]

Nikephoros I chose to ignore Charlemagne's claim to the imperial title, clearly recognizing the implications of this act. According to Ostrogorsky, "he even went so far as to refuse the Patriarch Nicephorus permission to dispatch the customary synodica to the Pope."[3] Meanwhile, Charlemagne's power steadily increased: he subdued Istria and several Dalmatian cities during the reign of Irene, and his son Pepin brought Venice under Western hegemony, despite a successful counter-attack by the Byzantine fleet. Unable to counter this encroachment on Byzantine territory, Nikephoros' successor Michael I Rangabe capitulated; in return for the restoration of the captured territories, Michael sent Byzantine delegates to Aachen in 812 who recognized Charlemagne as Basileus.[4] Michael did not recognize him as Basileus of the Romans, however, which was a title that he reserved for himself.[5]

Emperor Francis II, by Ludwig Streitenfeld, 1874.

This line of Roman emperors was actually generally Germanic rather than Roman. These emperors used a variety of titles (most frequently "Imperator Augustus") before finally settling on Imperator Romanus Electus ("Elected Roman Emperor"). Historians customarily assign them the title "Holy Roman Emperor", which has a basis in actual historical usage, and treat their "Holy Roman Empire" as a separate institution. To Latin Catholics of the time, the Pope was the temporal authority as well as spiritual authority, and as Bishop of Rome he was recognized as having the power to anoint or crown a new Roman emperor. The last man to be crowned by the pope (although in Bologna, not Rome) was Charles V. All his successors bore only a title of "Elected Roman Emperor".

This line of Emperors lasted until 1806 when Francis II dissolved the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. Despite the existence of later potentates styling themselves "emperor", such as the Napoleons, the Habsburg Emperors of Austria, and the Hohenzollern heads of the German Reich, this marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire.

Rudolf of Rheinfelden, the Anti-king[edit | edit source]

Rudolph, Anti-Emperor of Henry IV, Loses His Arm in Combat, engraving by Bernhard Rode, 1781.

An anti-king is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch.[6] The term is usually used in a European historical context where it relates to elective monarchies rather than hereditary ones. In hereditary monarchies such figures are more frequently referred to as pretenders or claimants.

Anti-kings are most commonly referred to in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, before the Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Emperor Charles IV defined the provisions of the Imperial election. Several anti-kings succeeded in vindicating their claims to power, and were recognized as rightful kings, like Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia and elected was elected anti-king on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where already Louis the Child and Conrad I had been crowned. The first anti-king in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture solely according to canon law, as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. He was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz, Salzburg and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and also by Duke Magnus of Saxony. He proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I[7].

Ansgarius, Rex Romanorum, by Lucas Othonsen, 2023.

He fought to assert his claim during all his short reign, and during the Battle of Elster, which took place on 14 October 1080, was a huge victory for the anti-royalists. However, Rudolf lost his right hand in the battle and was mortally wounded in the abdomen. He withdrew to nearby Merseburg, where he died the next day and was buried. The majority of the support for the rebellion against Henry IV soon evaporated, but the struggle continued on in effect into 1085, with a final flare up in 1088 under Rudolph's successor, the second anti-king, Herman of Luxembourg.

The main importance of Rudolf of Rheinfelden for the Karno-Ruthenian interests is this link with the Holy Roman succession, while playing decisive role to assert this "loyal opposition" to the, in thesis, rightful claim of the House of Habsburg. On 15 March 2023, it was proposed to the III Legislature the legislative recognition of Oscar I as "Rex Romanorum", in addition to the claims made by the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha on the House Law of the Karno-Ruthenian Imperial Family, in celebration to the 496th anniversary of the election of Rudolf of Rheinfelden. The project was defeated the following day[8].

List of Holy Roman Emperors[edit | edit source]

While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is often considered to have begun with the crowning Otto I, at the time Duke of Saxony and King of Germany. Because the King of Germany was an elected position, being elected King of Germany was functionally a pre-requisite to being crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The period of free election ended with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs held the imperial throne until the 18th century. Later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine passed it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. The following list is the Goëtzër version of the list of Holy Roman Emperors, succeding the Habsburgs.

Number Coat of arms Name
King Emperor Ended Relationship with predecessor(s) Other title(s)
1 KarlingCoA.png Charlemagne (Charles I)
09 October 768 25 December 800 28 January 814
2 KarlingCoA.png Louis I, the Pious
781 11 September 813[9] 20 June 840 Son of Charles I
3 KarlingCoA.png Lothair I
2 February 1440 5 April 823 29 September 855 Son of Louis I
4 KarlingCoA.png Louis II
29 September 855 12 August 875 Son of Lothair I
5 KarlingCoA.png Charles II, the Bald
20 June 840 29 December 875 6 October 877 Son of Louis I, younger brother of Lothair I
6 KarlingCoA.png Charles III, the Fat
28 August 876 12 February 881 13 January 888 Grandson of Louis I
7 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Guy
February 889 21 February 891 12 December 894 Great-great-grandson of Charles I
8 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Lambert
891 30 April 892 15 October 898 Son of Guy
9 KarlingCoA.png Arnulph
27 November 887 22 February 896 8 December 899 Nephew of Charles III, great-grandson of Louis I
10 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Louis III, the Blind
887 22 February 901 21 July 905 Grandson of Louis II
11 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Berengar
December 915 December 915 7 April 924 Grandson of Louis I
12 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Otto I, the Great
2 July 936 2 February 962 7 May 973
13 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Otto II, the Red
26 May 961 25 December 967 7 December 983 Son of Otto I
14 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Otto III
25 December 983 21 May 996 23 January 1002 Grandson of Otto II
15 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Henry II[note 1]
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 13 July 1024 Second cousin of Otto III
16 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Conrad II, the Elder[note 2]
14 April 1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II
17 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Henry III, the Black
14 April 1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II
18 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Henry IV
17 July 1054 1 April 1084 7 August 1106 Son of Henry III
19 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Henry V[10]
6 January 1099 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV
20 Holy Roman Empire AncientCoA.png Lothair II[note 3]
30 August 1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 Great-great-great-great-great-great-grandnephew of Otto I
21 HRE Hohenstaufen.png Frederick I Barbarossa
4 March 1152 18 June 1155 10 June 1190 Great-grandson of Henry IV
22 HRE Hohenstaufen.png Henry VI
15 August 1169 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I
23 Otto Welf.png Otto IV
9 June 1198 21 October 1209 1215 Great-grandson of Lothair II
24 HRE Hohenstaufen.png Frederick II,
Stupor Mundi 1194–1250
5 December 1212 22 November 1220 13 December 1250 Son of Henry VI
25 Henry VII Luxembourg.png Henry VII
27 November 1308 29 June 1312 24 August 1313 Great x11 grandson of Charles II
26 HRE Wittelsbach.png Louis IV, the Bavarian
20 October 1314 17 January 1328 11 October 1348 Far descendant of Henry IV and great-great-great-great-grandson of Lothair II
27 HRE Luxembourg Bohemia.png Charles IV
11 July 1346 5 April 1355 29 November 1378 Grandson of Henry VII
28 HRE Sigismund.png Sigismund
10 September 1410
/21 July 1411
31 May 1433 9 December 1437 Son of Charles IV
29 Frederick III of Habsburg.png Frederick III, the Peaceful
2 February 1440 16 March 1452 19 August 1493 Second cousin of Albert II of Germany, Emperor designate
30 HREMaximilian I.png Maximilian I
16 February 1486 4 February 1508 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III
31 HRE Charles V.png Charles V
28 June 1519 28 June 1519 27 August 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I
32 Ferdinand I of Austria.png Ferdinand I
5 January 1531 27 August 1556 25 July 1564 Brother of Charles V; grandson of Maximilian I
33 Maximilien Ier de Habsbourg.png Maximilian II
22 November 1562 25 July 1564 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I
34 Habsburg-Austria.png Rudolf II
27 October 1575 12 October 1576 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II
35 Habsburg-Austria.png Matthias
13 June 1612 13 June 1612 20 March 1619 Brother of Rudolf II
36 Habsburg-Austria.png Ferdinand II
28 August 1619 28 August 1619 15 February 1637 Cousin of Matthias; grandson of Ferdinand I
37 Ferdinand III Habsburg.png Ferdinand III
22 December 1636 15 February 1637 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II
38 Habsburg-Austria.png Leopold I
18 July 1658 18 July 1658 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III
39 Maximilien Ier de Habsbourg.png Joseph I
23 January 1690 5 May 1705 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I
40 Charles VI Habsburg.png Charles VI
12 October 1711 12 October 1711 20 October 1740 Brother of Joseph I; son of Leopold I
41 HRE Wittelsbach.png Charles VII
24 January 1742 24 January 1742 20 January 1745 Great-great grandson of Ferdinand II; son-in-law of Joseph I
42 HRE Francis I.png Francis I
13 September 1745 13 September 1745 18 August 1765 Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; son-in-law of Charles VI
43 HRE Joseph II.png Joseph II
27 March 1764 18 August 1765 20 February 1790 Son of Empress Maria Theresa, de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I.
44 HRE Leopold II, Francis II.png Leopold II
30 September 1790 30 September 1790 1 March 1792 Son of Empress Maria Theresa,de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I. Brother of Joseph II.
45 HRE Leopold II, Francis II.png Francis II
5 July 1792 5 July 1792 6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II
46 HRE Older Goetzer.png Louis V
Far descendant of Anti-king Rudolf.
47 HRE Older Goetzer.png Louis VI
Son of Louis V
48 HRE Older Goetzer.png Alexander I
Son of Louis VI
49 HRE Older Goetzer.png Michael
Son-in-law of Alexander I
50 HRE-Goetzer.png Joseph III
19 November 2014 20 November 2014 Son-in-law of Michael I
51 HRE-Goetzer.png Oscar I
20 November 2014 10 March 2016 Son of Joseph III

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 164)
  2. (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 164f)
  3. (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 175)
  4. (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 176)
  5. Eichmann, Eduard (1942). Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland: ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des kirchlichen Rechte, der Liturgie und der Kirchenpolitik. Echter-Verlag. p. 33.
  6. OED "Anti-, 2" The OED does not give "anti-king" its own entry, unlike "antipope", but includes it in a list of political "anti-" formations, such as "anti-emperor" and "anti-caesar". The earliest example of anti-king cited is from 1619 (and the next by Dr Pusey). Only the hyphenated form is cited or mentioned.
  7. Vita Heinrici IV. imperatoris, ch. 4, p. 17; Liber de unitate ecclesiae, I 13.
  8. Imperial and Royal Government communiqué, 17 March 2023.
  9. Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89
  10. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-30153-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  2. Enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  3. Enumerated also Lothair III as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor