Goëtzër claim to Roman succession
After the House Law of the Karno-Ruthenian Imperial Family, the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha formally laid claim to be the legitimate Roman emperors, in what the law called loyal opposition to the possible claim of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine to the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
Being descendants of the inaugural dynasty of Kings of Hungary and having Rudolf of Rheinfelden as ancestor (Anti-King from 15 March 1077 to 15 October 1080), with no active will of the current Habsburgs dynasts in claim the position and with some micronationalists with feeble claims to the Holy Roman throne, the imperial family of Karnia-Ruthenia decided to claim the title for historical purposes, but also for cultural-related reasons, as much to have their Karno-Ruthenian claim to imperial rank strengthened by this bond with the Holy Roman Imperial succession.
Holy Roman Emperor[edit | edit source]
The concept of the Roman Empire was renewed in the West with the coronation of the king of the Franks, Charlemagne, as Roman emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800. This coronation had its roots in the decline of influence of the Pope in the affairs of the Byzantine Empire at the same time the Byzantine Empire declined in influence over politics in the West. The Pope saw no advantage to be derived from working with the Byzantine Empire, but as George Ostrogorsky points out, "an alliance with the famous conqueror of the Lombards, on the other hand ... promised much".
The immediate response of the Eastern Roman emperor was not welcoming. "At that time it was axiomatic that there could be only one Empire as there could be only one church", writes Ostrogorsky. "The coronation of Charles the Great violated all traditional ideas and struck a hard blow at Byzantine interests, for hitherto Byzantium, the new Rome, had unquestionably been regarded as the sole Empire which had taken over the inheritance of the old Roman imperium. Conscious of its imperial rights, Byzantium could only consider the elevation of Charles the Great to be an act of usurpation."
Nikephoros I chose to ignore Charlemagne's claim to the imperial title, clearly recognizing the implications of this act. According to Ostrogorsky, "he even went so far as to refuse the Patriarch Nicephorus permission to dispatch the customary synodica to the Pope." Meanwhile, Charlemagne's power steadily increased: he subdued Istria and several Dalmatian cities during the reign of Irene, and his son Pepin brought Venice under Western hegemony, despite a successful counter-attack by the Byzantine fleet. Unable to counter this encroachment on Byzantine territory, Nikephoros' successor Michael I Rangabe capitulated; in return for the restoration of the captured territories, Michael sent Byzantine delegates to Aachen in 812 who recognized Charlemagne as Basileus. Michael did not recognize him as Basileus of the Romans, however, which was a title that he reserved for himself.
This line of Roman emperors was actually generally Germanic rather than Roman. These emperors used a variety of titles (most frequently "Imperator Augustus") before finally settling on Imperator Romanus Electus ("Elected Roman Emperor"). Historians customarily assign them the title "Holy Roman Emperor", which has a basis in actual historical usage, and treat their "Holy Roman Empire" as a separate institution. To Latin Catholics of the time, the Pope was the temporal authority as well as spiritual authority, and as Bishop of Rome he was recognized as having the power to anoint or crown a new Roman emperor. The last man to be crowned by the pope (although in Bologna, not Rome) was Charles V. All his successors bore only a title of "Elected Roman Emperor".
This line of Emperors lasted until 1806 when Francis II dissolved the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. Despite the existence of later potentates styling themselves "emperor", such as the Napoleons, the Habsburg Emperors of Austria, and the Hohenzollern heads of the German Reich, this marked the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
Rudolf of Rheinfelden, the Anti-king[edit | edit source]
An anti-king is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch. The term is usually used in a European historical context where it relates to elective monarchies rather than hereditary ones. In hereditary monarchies such figures are more frequently referred to as pretenders or claimants.
Anti-kings are most commonly referred to in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, before the Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Emperor Charles IV defined the provisions of the Imperial election. Several anti-kings succeeded in vindicating their claims to power, and were recognized as rightful kings, like Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia and elected was elected anti-king on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where already Louis the Child and Conrad I had been crowned. The first anti-king in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture solely according to canon law, as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. He was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz, Salzburg and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and also by Duke Magnus of Saxony. He proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I.
He fought to assert his claim during all his short reign, and during the Battle of Elster, which took place on 14 October 1080, was a huge victory for the anti-royalists. However, Rudolf lost his right hand in the battle and was mortally wounded in the abdomen. He withdrew to nearby Merseburg, where he died the next day and was buried. The majority of the support for the rebellion against Henry IV soon evaporated, but the struggle continued on in effect into 1085, with a final flare up in 1088 under Rudolph's successor, the second anti-king, Herman of Luxembourg.
The main importance of Rudolf of Rheinfelden for the Karno-Ruthenian interests is this link with the Holy Roman succession, while playing decisive role to assert this "loyal opposition" to the, in thesis, rightful claim of the House of Habsburg. On 15 March 2023, it was proposed to the III Legislature the legislative recognition of Oscar I as "Rex Romanorum", in addition to the claims made by the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha on the House Law of the Karno-Ruthenian Imperial Family, in celebration to the 496th anniversary of the election of Rudolf of Rheinfelden. The project was defeated the following day.
List of Holy Roman Emperors[edit | edit source]
While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire is often considered to have begun with the crowning Otto I, at the time Duke of Saxony and King of Germany. Because the King of Germany was an elected position, being elected King of Germany was functionally a pre-requisite to being crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The period of free election ended with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs held the imperial throne until the 18th century. Later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine passed it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. The following list is the Goëtzër version of the list of Holy Roman Emperors, succeding the Habsburgs.
|Number||Coat of arms||Name
|King||Emperor||Ended||Relationship with predecessor(s)||Other title(s)|
|1||Charlemagne (Charles I)
|09 October 768||25 December 800||28 January 814|
|2||Louis I, the Pious
|781||11 September 813||20 June 840||Son of Charles I|
|2 February 1440||5 April 823||29 September 855||Son of Louis I|
|29 September 855||12 August 875||Son of Lothair I|
|5||Charles II, the Bald
|20 June 840||29 December 875||6 October 877||Son of Louis I, younger brother of Lothair I|
|6||Charles III, the Fat
|28 August 876||12 February 881||13 January 888||Grandson of Louis I|
|February 889||21 February 891||12 December 894||Great-great-grandson of Charles I|
|891||30 April 892||15 October 898||Son of Guy|
|27 November 887||22 February 896||8 December 899||Nephew of Charles III, great-grandson of Louis I|
|10||Louis III, the Blind
|887||22 February 901||21 July 905||Grandson of Louis II|
|December 915||December 915||7 April 924||Grandson of Louis I|
|12||Otto I, the Great
|2 July 936||2 February 962||7 May 973|
|13||Otto II, the Red
|26 May 961||25 December 967||7 December 983||Son of Otto I|
|25 December 983||21 May 996||23 January 1002||Grandson of Otto II|
|15||Henry II[note 1]
|7 June 1002||14 February 1014||13 July 1024||Second cousin of Otto III|
|16||Conrad II, the Elder[note 2]
|14 April 1028||25 December 1046||5 October 1056||Son of Conrad II|
|17||Henry III, the Black
|14 April 1028||25 December 1046||5 October 1056||Son of Conrad II|
|17 July 1054||1 April 1084||7 August 1106||Son of Henry III|
|6 January 1099||13 April 1111||23 May 1125||Son of Henry IV|
|20||Lothair II[note 3]
|30 August 1125||4 June 1133||4 December 1137||Great-great-great-great-great-great-grandnephew of Otto I|
|21||Frederick I Barbarossa
|4 March 1152||18 June 1155||10 June 1190||Great-grandson of Henry IV|
|15 August 1169||14 April 1191||28 September 1197||Son of Frederick I|
|9 June 1198||21 October 1209||1215||Great-grandson of Lothair II|
Stupor Mundi 1194–1250
|5 December 1212||22 November 1220||13 December 1250||Son of Henry VI|
|27 November 1308||29 June 1312||24 August 1313||Great x11 grandson of Charles II|
|26||Louis IV, the Bavarian
|20 October 1314||17 January 1328||11 October 1348||Far descendant of Henry IV and great-great-great-great-grandson of Lothair II|
|11 July 1346||5 April 1355||29 November 1378||Grandson of Henry VII|
|10 September 1410
/21 July 1411
|31 May 1433||9 December 1437||Son of Charles IV|
|29||Frederick III, the Peaceful
|2 February 1440||16 March 1452||19 August 1493||Second cousin of Albert II of Germany, Emperor designate|
|16 February 1486||4 February 1508||12 January 1519||Son of Frederick III|
|28 June 1519||28 June 1519||27 August 1556||Grandson of Maximilian I|
|5 January 1531||27 August 1556||25 July 1564||Brother of Charles V; grandson of Maximilian I|
|22 November 1562||25 July 1564||12 October 1576||Son of Ferdinand I|
|27 October 1575||12 October 1576||20 January 1612||Son of Maximilian II|
|13 June 1612||13 June 1612||20 March 1619||Brother of Rudolf II|
|28 August 1619||28 August 1619||15 February 1637||Cousin of Matthias; grandson of Ferdinand I|
|22 December 1636||15 February 1637||2 April 1657||Son of Ferdinand II|
|18 July 1658||18 July 1658||5 May 1705||Son of Ferdinand III|
|23 January 1690||5 May 1705||17 April 1711||Son of Leopold I|
|12 October 1711||12 October 1711||20 October 1740||Brother of Joseph I; son of Leopold I|
|24 January 1742||24 January 1742||20 January 1745||Great-great grandson of Ferdinand II; son-in-law of Joseph I|
|13 September 1745||13 September 1745||18 August 1765||Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; son-in-law of Charles VI|
|27 March 1764||18 August 1765||20 February 1790||Son of Empress Maria Theresa, de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I.|
|30 September 1790||30 September 1790||1 March 1792||Son of Empress Maria Theresa,de facto ruler of the empire, and Francis I. Brother of Joseph II.|
|5 July 1792||5 July 1792||6 August 1806||Son of Leopold II|
|Far descendant of Anti-king Rudolf.|
|Son of Louis V|
|Son of Louis VI|
|Son-in-law of Alexander I|
|19 November 2014||20 November 2014||Son-in-law of Michael I|
|20 November 2014||10 March 2016||Son of Joseph III|
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- ↑ (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 164)
- ↑ (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 164f)
- ↑ (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 175)
- ↑ (Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 176)
- ↑ Eichmann, Eduard (1942). Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland: ein Beitrag zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des kirchlichen Rechte, der Liturgie und der Kirchenpolitik. Echter-Verlag. p. 33.
- ↑ OED "Anti-, 2" The OED does not give "anti-king" its own entry, unlike "antipope", but includes it in a list of political "anti-" formations, such as "anti-emperor" and "anti-caesar". The earliest example of anti-king cited is from 1619 (and the next by Dr Pusey). Only the hyphenated form is cited or mentioned.
- ↑ Vita Heinrici IV. imperatoris, ch. 4, p. 17; Liber de unitate ecclesiae, I 13.
- ↑ Imperial and Royal Government communiqué, 17 March 2023.
- ↑ Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89
- ↑ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-30153-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>