History of Karnia-Ruthenia

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The history of Karnia-Ruthenia covers the history of Karnia-Ruthenia and its predecessor states, from the foundation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia to the present state. The name Ruthenia has been in use since November 2014 when it was a kingdom and from 2016 as an independent kingdom of the Empire due to the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016. Ruthenia was dominated by the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha (or House of Ruthenia) since its foundation in 2014, then became the Karno-Ruthenian Empire as a dual monarchy with Karnia in 2016.

Historiography[edit | edit source]

The history of Ruthenia raises some questions. Should it be confined to the current Karnia-Ruthenia or to all lands formerly ruled by the rulers of the Empire, like the Principality of Lomellina? Of the lands now part of modern Empire, many were added over time, while other parts are now part of other micronations.

Overview[edit | edit source]

The micronationalists who created the Empire began their careers micronational between 2009 and 2016. Besides the difference between the years they began their involvement with micronationalism, the influences of these micronationalists can also be observed in the current structure of Karnia-Ruthenia.

The European micronationalists of the Empire were influenced by the micronational practices of the continent, closer to the definition of "aspirant states" like the Principality of Seborga, the Principality of Sealand and the Principality of Hutt River. This kind of micronations are founded based on historical or legal anomalies (divergent interpretations of law). These types of micronations are usually located on small (or disputed) territorial enclaves, generate limited economic activity founded on tourism and philatelic and numismatic sales and are tolerated or ignored by the nations from which they claim to have seceded[1].

Among the Americans micronationalists who helped the creation of the Empire, the micronational shed practiced was defined as political, social and economic simulations; even modelist projects, focused more on culture than for a micronational practice considered pure, resuming themselves in recreating the past or simulating political or social processes. Those micronational projects tended to be reasonably serious and they were largely inspired by micronations as the Holy Empire of Reunion and the Grand Duchy of Flandrensis, among others.

Pre-Imperial Period (2014 - 2016)[edit | edit source]

Ruthenia[edit | edit source]

The oldest micronation that compose the Empire is tke Kingdom of Ruthenia. The first settlements on the land now claimed by Ruthenia date from the first half of the eighteenth century, having been founded with the arrival of the Royal Family of Portugal in Brazil. With the fall of Napoleon and the return of the Braganza Dynasty to Portugal, the House of Thomaz-Rocha decided to remain in the region, having established power and prestige among the locals.

From then on, the future ruling family of Ruthenia ignored the government and wielded autonomy over the area, not being contested by any authority. On 19 November 2014, after nearly two centuries of uninterrupted exercise of power in the region - but a force in decline, a major step was taken. After gaining permission from his father, the now King Oscar of Ruthenia established the Throne of Ruthenia, declaring Ruthenia to be an independent kingdom[2]. The following day, the flag and the national coat of arms, the royal title, the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Finance and the Royal Household, Defence and Immigration were established, and religious freedom in the kingdom was granted[3]. In the early hours of 21 November, the Kingdom of Acrin was the first nation to recognize Ruthenia, followed by the German Reich of Mednyi and the People's Republic of Hashima.

The early Ruthenian history were plagued by uncertainty and political instability, but King Oscar was able to maintain order and develop the kingdom. On 22 March 2015, the capital was officially moved to the south, to Persenburg-Götzödorf[4][5], having previously been Alto da Solidão. An Absolute Monarchy from his beggining, everything has changed with the Constitution of 2015[6]. Ruthenia became a confederate constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Ruthenia is the Head of State and the Chancellor is the Head of Government, and the Power of the King was splited among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.

The Scandinavian Affair[edit | edit source]

Cover of the official reply of Ruthenian Government to the Government of Munkkia. The content follows secret.

Widely reported in the national and foreign media, the "Scandinavian Affair" was a crisis which started with a referendum to decide which national language would be adopted by Ruthenia. Lusophones and Anglophones micronationalists had splited the government, disputing for power and forcing the King to favoring one group against other. A plebiscite was summoned and ended with the victory of the supporters of the English language. With Portuguese limited to being the language of the Court, the Lusophones began an exodus from Ruthenia. The Anglophones, led by the Duke of Erdene, tried to incite rebellion, later being punished[7].

During this crisis, the Empire of Munkkia approached the Ruthenian government, proposing an union between the two micronations. The Ruthenian people didn't approve the proposal, not wishing to have their faith and culture becoming a minority. The union failed and the relationship between Munkkia and Ruthenia was severely damaged[8]. One of the most tragic moments was a false accusation of espionage made against a Norwegian subject, which caused national uproar, despite having also been an example of popular disapproval against union of the two micronations[9].

The decision not to join Munkkia was taken during a meeting convened by King Oscar, during which it was also decided that the King would participate more actively in power at least until a Constitution comes into force. Also on this occasion, it was announced that Ruthenia would be, until further notice, an absolute monarchy, and the King would exercise, with support from the General Assembly, a "royal dictatorship"[10]. After the estabilishment of a constitutional monarchy, Ruthenia became a democratic micronation. On March 2015, the King of Ruthenia and Mathias L. Magnussen, President of Munkkia estabilished informal conversations, restoring a peaceful distance between the nations.

The Union with Libertia and Savage Islands[edit | edit source]

After the Lomellinian Revolt in the last days of the Principality of Lomellina, Prince Guilherme I was officially overthrowed by Richard Abreo-Louis after the capture of Castello di Valle, Lomellina's capital city. The dethroned prince went to exile in the Autonomous Kingdom of the Savage Islands, which was formed by his cousin, King Francis II. After a week in exile, D. Guilherme took the conclusion that he still held ruling power in Lomellina Consolato and founded the Duchy of Libertia within the city along with his Ducal Family.

On 30 January 2015, D. Guilherme established contact with the King Oscar of Ruthenia, with the idea of annexing Libertia into the Kingdom of Ruthenia, a request that was instantly accepted. On 23 February 2015, D. Francis II of Savage Islands gave the rights and sovereignty of the islands to his cousin, D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer, the Duke of Libertia. The Kingdom was transformed into the Grand Duchy of the Savage Islands and annexed to the Kingdom of Ruthenia after D. Guilherme confirmed loyalty to the Ruthenian Monarch[11].

On 19 June 2015, D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer abdicated to his title of Grand Duke due to the fact that the Portuguese Republic and the group called People's Alternative for the Canary Islands are both involved in a territorial dispute that could create diplomatic, political and physical problems to the Kingdom of Ruthenia and the Duchy of Libertia. On the same day, the King abdicated his Savish titles and dissolve the Grand Duchy. This fact ended the occupation which lasted four months and seventeen days[12].

Ruthenian Antarctica[edit | edit source]

Map of land claims of the members of the AMU, developed by the Grand Duke of Westarctica. August, 2015

After the loss of Savage Islands, the Ruthenian Government restarted the expansion plans. On 30 June 2015, the Government of Ruthenia annexed the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land[13], located on the eastern portion of Antarctica, which came to be known as Grand Duchy of Gaussland[14]. The Ruthenian government says "the move was to promote a better world through the protection of environment as well as in respect to the imperial ambitions that can only be filled by such attitudes".

The Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, the part of Antarctica lying between Cape Penck, at 87°43’E, and Cape Filchner, at 91°54’E, became an integral part of the Ruthenian State from the date of the decree issued by King Oscar, but at the time the Kingdom of Ruthenia was admitted as the sixteenth member of the Antarctic Micronational Union[15][16], Ruthenia claimed a much larger territory, then ruling the territory between USLSSR and St.Charlie[17].

The Kingdom of the Golden Dragon and the Throne of Lion[edit | edit source]

Main article: Overthrow of the Badakistani monarchy

Renunciation to the Throne, by the Shah Jaffar Shah of Badakistan, 18 September 2015.

During the end of 2014 and the first half of 2015, the Brazilian micronationalism noted the creation of multiple projects lasting a few weeks and denoted a lack of professionalism and commitment to the expansion of micronationalism. When Filipe Machado founded the State of Bessabia, known as the "Kingdom of the Golden Dragon" because of the coat of arms of the kingdom, the Crown of Bessabia was offered to the King of Ruthenia, who accepted. Although Bessabia has become part of Ruthenia and willing of great administrative autonomy and that the King had moderator power provided by law, Oscar of Ruthenia pledged not to make Bessabia only an administrative region of Ruthenia. Since then, the Bessabia became the Lusophone image of Ruthenia, responsible for the contact of Ruthenians with micronations from Brazil and Portugal, as well as others whose official language was Portuguese[18].

Less than a month after the annexation of Bessabia, one of the biggest allies of Ruthenia between the Portuguese-speaking micronations, the Badakistan, went into a dizzying dismantling of democracy and disappearance of micronational activity. In this scenario, the Ruthenian diplomacy interfered in the case and through intense negotiations, the King of Ruthenia became, on 20 September 2015, the Shah of Badakhshan[19]. Through that act, the King of the Ruthenians became an imperial figure and Ruthenia increased its relevance in his country of origin. Although not considered a change of treatment or a transition from a royal centralized government to a imperial centralized government, profound political changes would be operated from that moment.

Despite Emperor Oscar's reign have been relatively successful and well accepted by most reputable micronations, it was a highly unpopular monarch. His subjects rejected it to see that it was a foreigner who did not identify with the micronation and who cared about the Anglophone sector, more than the Lusophone. Between the end of November and the first week of December of 2015, the political situation was unsustainable. The return of former monarch Jaffar Sheri brought concerns and uncertainties. Willing to regain the throne, he sought the support of other micronations and garnered support among the aristocracy and the military[20].

Anticipating the coup through informations from the Ruthenian Secret Service, the Emperor decreed the dissolution of the Majlis, the parliament and took upon himself the command of the armed forces. Provided with dictatorial powers, contacted the Stadhouder of the United Provinces of Mauricia to hand over sovereignty over the territory, ending the Badakistan as an independent and sovereign micronation[21]. A union treaty was signed in the last hours of 08 December 2015. The Badakistan became a province of a traditional Brazilian micronation and the then Emperor, deprived of his power, assumed the title of "Hereditary Lord of Badakistan Lands"[22].

The October coup attempt[edit | edit source]

Main article: 2015 Ruthenian coup d'état attempt

On 22 October 2015, Nailimiskam Lisavovich Okbob, a supposed Ukrainian micronationalist, announced that it had established in 2007 its own "Kingdom of Ruthenia"[23]. However, they were never presented evidence that foundation and the usurper was aware of the original Ruthenia, including the fact that he was a member of the M.A.G.N.A. Group, a Facebook group dedicated to convivial Ruthenians and friends of the micronation.

Ignoring the arguments of the Government of His Majesty, Okbob made maximum publicity possible, trying to promote his micronation as legitimate and as part of Ahaanian Union, a micronation founded earlier by the usurper. As a result, the Ruthenian government launched a massive advertising campaign, highlighting the originality of the project and making it clear, through the slogan "The one and only Kingdom of Ruthenia, that there would only be only one Ruthenia[24].

Treated as attempted coup by the legitimate Government of Ruthenia, the usurper was supported only by Cesidio Tallini, who tried to force a "peace agreement" where both micronations coexisted[25]. Oscar I of Ruthenia objected strictly condone what he declared to be a "fraud." The Legitimate Ruthenia was supported by the Republic of Lostisland, the Empire of Pavlov, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes, the Kingdom of Gaston, the Consulat of Surland, the Empire of Lemuria, the Kingdom of Ruritania and the Imperial Grand Duchy of Lundenwic.

It is regarded as the end of the incident the "abdication" presented by the usurper to the throne of Ruthenia[26].

The Autumn Revolution in Acrin[edit | edit source]

During the first four months of existence of the Kingdom of Acrin, the King and his government were devoted to foreign relations, the formulation of their national symbols, which suffered greatly Ruthenian influence and attempts to attract investment and establish connections with other micronations, misguided attitudes that made the inexperienced government of the time lose much of their enthusiasm and credibility.

Over the next eight months, no activity was observed. The Ruthenian Government, the greatest ally of Acrin at the time, tried numerous times to contact, either in order to get news or in order to propose a union of crowns led by Ruthenia. In November 2015, when Acrin and Ruthenia would complete one year of existence, King Eitan of Acrin was appointed to the Order of the Foundation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia. Before the failed attempt to contact the King of his award, the Ruthenian government began formulating a audacious plan.

On 19 November 2015, the Ruthenian government issued an ultimatum: either Acrin answer their messages within one month counting of that date, or the King of the Ruthenians, as the Aristocratic Chieftain of the Clans of Acrin, would claim the throne for himself. Although this version of events be announced by the Ruthenian government, the first contact attempt occurred through Micronation.org Forum, nine days before the e-mail was sent to King Eitan and the government of Acrin.

There was no answer. In the words of King Eitan himself when he made the King of the Ruthenians the Aristocratic Cheftain of the Clans of Acrin, he explained that "You lead all the families as one aristocrat". Based on this interpretation, Oscar of Ruthenia not only was the last active Acrinian noble, as was also responsible for leading the nobility of Acrin. Thus, with the government abandoned, it would be an obligation of Ruthenians to protect the micronation.

Through a special decree of 15 December 2015, Oscar of Ruthenia dethroned King Eitan, granting to him, however, the title of Prince Szteinbaum of Acrin. In the same act, he removed the entire autonomy of Acrin, making the kingdom a little more than a Ruthenian province. Other executive acts were issued by the new king, who ordered new flag, new coat of arms, new capital and advertising his rise, which was greeted with enthusiasm in Ruthenia[27]. By becoming part of a larger kingdom, Acrin acquired more visibility, even though it cost their entire independence. Ruthenia, in turn, was little benefited, since the so-called "Autumn Revolution" only increased their territories and announced the start of its most aggressive and imperialist actions.

Libertia[edit | edit source]

Another precursor state of the Empire and driving force for the start of the expansionist process of the Kingdom of Ruthenia was the Duchy of Libertia, founded on 1 December 2014 but its history is older and closely related to the Principality of Lomellina. The whole history of the principality and the early history of the duchy was, as the Kingdom of Ruthenia own history in its begin, a troubled period, but the development of the duchy made of it the cultural center and one of the Empire's most influential states, as well as the second most populous state of the micronation.

Principality of Lomellina[edit | edit source]

The Principality of Lomellina was an enclave and exclave micronation with self-proclaimed territories in Antarctica, Italy and Greenland. Its capital, Castello di Valle, was located in Valle Lomelina, a region of Lombary, Italy, making it the core of the principality, though the Prince lived at the Lomellina Consolato. The principality was claimed to be founded around the beginning of the 13th century, but only seceded in 6 August 2014 by initiative of D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer, after proving his direct descent from the House of Lomellini, the founders of Lomellina.

The Lomellinian Revolt and the Foundation of the Duchy[edit | edit source]

On 20 November 2014, the Lomellinian Aristocracy proposed a government change in which the High Chanceller Richard Abreo-Louis had complete ruling power over the aristocracy members, in a decision that did not pleased the Prince of Lomellina, since the prince had gave great autonomy for aristocracy.

His denial started an anti-absolutist campaign against him on 26 November. The same day, the event now called "Lomellinian Revolt" began, and Richard Abreo-Louis was crowned as the constitutional successor of Prince Guilherme and his reign lasted for only 3 days. On the 01 December, Guilherme I was officially overthrowed by Richard Abreo-Louis after the capture of Castello di Valle, Lomellina's capital city. After 04 December, Richard turned the nation into a State in which the only territorial posession was Castello di Valle, thus creating the State of Lomellina.

As for the dethroned D. Guilherme I, he exiled to the Autonomous Kingdom of the Savage Islands, which was formed by his cousin, King Francisco de Moniz II. After a week in exile, D. Guilherme took the conclusion that he still held ruling power in Lomellina Consolato and founded the Duchy of Libertia within the city along with his Ducal Family.

Union with the Kingdom of Ruthenia[edit | edit source]

On 30 January 2015, D. Guilherme established contact with the King Oscar of Ruthenia, with the idea of annexing Libertia into the Kingdom of Ruthenia, a request that was instantly accepted, since the two were old friends. King Oscar appointed Guilherme as Chancellor of Ruthenia and place his family between the other Ruthenian noble houses by Royal Decree n. 033 of 1 February 2015 that states in its fifth article: "I grant autonomy to the Dukes of Libertia to rule the Duchy from which it comes from that in full accord and harmony with the Government of Ruthenia." and in its sixth article that "I nominate His Royal Highness the Duke of Libertia, for the position of Chancellor of Ruthenia, whose functions shall be established by the Constitutional text".

Since then, the Duchy of Libertia has been one of the most important cultural centres of Ruthenia and home of the Libertian Archives which gave Ruthenia and all its vassal states the most reliable source in Ruthenian documentation and micronational ex-libris as well as several official documents of the now sissolved Principality of Lomellina.

Karnia[edit | edit source]

Karnia was founded on 02 February 2016 at Prague, through a political act signed by Anton I of Karnia, who was elected as the first Kaiser; Calvin Gustav, the first and acting Minister-President and Louis Taünn, the President of the Reichsrat, the Imperial Council. Karnia was founded to preserve and celebrate the tradition of the Czech monarchy under the Habsburgs. After some weeks, the project didn't achieved the expectd result. Without a Constitution or a well estabilished system of government, the Karnian government understood they need help to estabilish themselves. Then, Kaiser Anton and the President of the Reichsratt, Louis Taünn found their help in the Ruthenian Government.

Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016[edit | edit source]

With many problems to establish a functioning government, a constitution, and especially in achieving recognition of other micronations, they realized a micronational project was much more difficult to drive than they would have imagined. When the Kingdom of Ruthenia offered the necessary help, they accepted enthusiastically. For weeks, while governments and their sovereign approached, the Ruthenian government provided help, teaching from the writing of decrees to the making of national symbols. They guided the creation of a page on Facebook and Twitter, as well as the material to be presented, but nothing was successful.

With the break between the Kaiser and the Minister-President caused precisely by disagreements about the conduct of government, the government of Karnia requested Ruthenian intervention. The cost of this intervention to save the newly created project was to deliver the Imperial Crown to the King of the Ruthenians. In return, the project would be expanded and be at par with the Kingdom of Ruthenia. The result of this negotiation was the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

Under the terms of the Compromise, Karnia and Ruthenia would maintain separate parliaments each with its own prime minister under a single monarch. In the Ruthenian half, the King-appointed Government would be responsible only to the Parliament instead of the King, which gave Ruthenian a great amount of autonomy, especially in internal matters. In the Karnian half, however, the Emperor would have the power to both appoint and dismiss its Prime Minister and cabinet members. The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the armed forces, foreign policy and for the customs union.

Acrin[edit | edit source]

Founded by Eitan Szteinbaum on 04 November 2014, the Kingdom of Acrin is headquartered in Metuchen, New Jersey, United States of America and was the first micronation to recognize the Kingdom of Ruthenia. During the first four months of existence, the King and his government were devoted to foreign relations, the formulation of their national symbols, which suffered greatly Ruthenian influence and attempts to attract investment and establish connections with other micronations, but misguided attitudes that made the inexperienced government of the time lose much of their enthusiasm and credibility.

Over the following eight months, no activity was observed. The Ruthenian Government, the greatest ally of Acrin at the time, tried numerous times to contact, either in order to get news or in order to propose a union of crowns led by Ruthenia. In November 2015, when Acrin and Ruthenia would complete one year of existence, King Eitan was appointed to the Order of the Foundation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia. Before the failed attempt to contact the King of his award, the Ruthenian government began formulating a audacious plan.

First Acrinian coat of arms.

Autumn Revolution[edit | edit source]

Main article: Autumn Revolution

Ruthenian Ultimatum[edit | edit source]

On 19 November 2015, the Ruthenian government issued an ultimatum: either Acrin answer their messages within one month counting of that date, or the King of the Ruthenians, as Aristocratic Chieftain of the Clan of Acrin, would claim the throne for himself. Although this version of events was announced by the Ruthenian government, the first contact attempt occurred through Micronation.org Forum, nine days before the e-mail was sent to King Eitan and the government of Acrin[28].

There was no answer. In the words of King Eitan himself, when he made the King of the Ruthenians the Aristocratic Cheftain of the Clans of Acrin, he explained that "You lead all the families as one aristocrat". Based on this interpretation, Oscar of Ruthenia was not only the last active Acrinian noble, but was also responsible for leading the nobility of Acrin. Thus, with the government abandoned, it would be an obligation of Ruthenians to protect the micronation.

Revolution[edit | edit source]

Through a special decree of 15 December 2015[29], Oscar of Ruthenia dethroned King Eitan, granting to him, however, the title of Prince Szteinbaum[30]. In the same act, he removed the entire autonomy of Acrin, making the kingdom a little more than a Ruthenian province. Other executive acts were issued by the new king, who ordered new flag, new coat of arms, new capital and advertising his rise, which was greeted with enthusiasm in Ruthenia.

Aftermath[edit | edit source]

By becoming part of a larger kingdom, Acrin acquired more visibility, even though it cost their entire independence. Ruthenia, in turn, was little benefited, since the so-called Autumn Revolution only increased their territories and announced the start of its most aggressive and imperialist actions. The change of government has been widely reported, but the reception rendered few responses, most of these positive and exalting the purview of the Kingdom of Ruthenia to the condition of "empire", something denied by the government at that time.

National Revival[edit | edit source]

After the Revolution, few real changes were noticed. The establishment of political contacts through Ruthenia was certainly one of the biggest gains, but it was the Ruthenian Constitution of 2015 that has been applied to the Acrinians which represented the most notable change in the period.

The government also encouraged what was called "Irishment" of national culture. The idea was to promote Acrin as a center of Irish culture, but the plan was phased out after Ruthenia start their own involuntary Germanization process with the creation of the Dual Monarchy between Karnia and Ruthenia.

However, in 2016, the Ruthenian government, involved by the great achievements that involved the signing of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016 made a great effort to promote Acrin and develop it in a more natural way, more integrated to its American reality.

The Admission Act[edit | edit source]

On the morning of 10 May 2016, the Office of the Prime Minister of the North American Confederation and the Imperial and Royal Government of the Empire of Karnia-Ruthenia announced the Diplomatic Law 008, known as the Acrin Admission Act, which formally admited the Kingdom of Acrin into the North American Confederation with full statehood status. This agreement with the Karno-Ruthenian Empire comes after months of diplomatic talks and negotiations between the Prime Minister Joseph Marx and Emperor-King Oscar I[31].

The act designates that the Kingdom of Acrin would enjoy all the privileges of statehood, including representation in the soon to be established national legislature; as well as continue to exist as a kingdom within the Karno-Ruthenian Empire. Emperor-King King Oscar continued to rule as King of Acrin, with the assistance of the first High Commissioner of the Kingdom of Acrin, Christian von Letzembourg.

On 21 March 2018, Emperor-King Oscar I sent to the Government of the North American Confederation an official report announcing that the Imperial and Royal Government had denounced the Acrin Admission Act. As a result, the Kingdom of Acrin would be again administered only by the central government of Karnia-Ruthenia. Once notified that Emperor William I and Prime Minister Joseph Marx received the statement, the Emperor-King made the contents of the communiqué available on the national forum[32][33].

Gaussland[edit | edit source]

Gaussland, officially the Grand Duchy of Gaussland (Portuguese: Grão-Ducado de Gaussland), is a micronation in Antarctica, and it is a vassal state of the Kingdom of Ruthenia, ruled by personal union since 30 June 2015 and recognised by Antarctic Micronational Union in 30 July 2015. It consists of the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land and adjacences and lies a claim over the territory between USLSSR and St.Charlie and is the sixteenth micronation to join the Antarctic Micronational Union.

After the loss of Savage Islands, the Ruthenian Government restarted their expansion plans and on 30 June 2015, the Government of Ruthenia annexed the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land[34], located on the eastern portion of Antarctica, which came to be known as Grand Duchy of Gaussland[35]. The Ruthenian government says "the move was to promote a better world through the protection of environment as well as in respect to the imperial ambitions que can only be filled by such attitudes".

Cumagne[edit | edit source]

Cumagne is a constitutional monarchy largely based on the culture of the French Monarchy and is located in Bouvet Island. It was created by the King Thomas I on 01 October 2015. On 23 September 2016, Cumagne became the eleventh state of Karno-Ruthenian Empire, although the Cumagnaise Monarchy was kept in power and with great amount of autonomy, following the example of all other states that have united under the Imperial Crown.

The Bouvet Island, officially by Norway, is an uninhabited island in the South Atlantic Ocean. Covering an area of ​​49 km², it is 93% covered by a thick ice cap that blocks the coast south and east. The Bouvet Island was discovered on 01 January 1739, by Jean-Baptiste Lozier Bouvet, Prince Slakhallet and honorary citizen of the Kingdom.

On 1 October 2015, the island became the Kingdom of Cumagne and the island remains a protected area. Its 29.6 km of coastline are often surrounded by drifting ice. Each austral summer, glaciers swathes fall high cliffs of volcanic origin in the sea or on the black sand beaches. The island benefiting from any port, it is particularly difficult for ships to approach; Embedded helicopter thus proves to be the easiest way to access it.

On September 2016, the relationship between Karnia-Ruthenia with Francophone micronations was at its peak and was shown to be advantageous to the Empire. On 23 September, after negotiations that lasted about a week, the Kingdom became the eleventh state of the Empire after the signing of the Treaty of Nison[36]. In addition to a significant increase in its population, it enriches the cultural diversity of Karnia-Ruthenia, which now had French elements that would be absorbed from the union, whereas Cumagne would improve its own internal policies from their union with a strong and stable government.

Horvatia[edit | edit source]

In Hungarian, Horvatia is referred to the word Croatia, in order to emphasize the familiarity of the micronation with the Hungarian culture practiced in the Kingdom of Ruthenia without loose its inspiration in Croatian history.

Establishment and Union[edit | edit source]

The Kingdom of Horvatia was created in 2016, when the former independent project of Horvatia and its responsible decided to join Ruthenia to establish a union of micronations with same objectives. The Founder of Horvatia, Governor and Vice-King Weslley of Agram contacted King Oscar of Ruthenia in order to unify the projects; he confirmed the subordination of Horvatia to Ruthenia in 2016 with signing of Horvatian-Ruthenian union, an annex of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

With this compromise, Horvatia became part of the Kingdom of Ruthenia in personal union and the Ruthenian Government controlled the military, the financial system, legislation and administration, customs and Foreign Affairs, acclaiming Oscar of Ruthenia as King of Horvatia. Weslley of Agram was appointed as Ban of Horvatia in the following day.

Letzembourg[edit | edit source]

The name "Letzembourg" was developed from the name of the European microstate, "Luxembourg", where most of the Letzembourguish culture is based upon. This in turn, according to modern historians, believe that the etymology of the word Luxembourg is a derivation of the word Letze, meaning fortification[37].

Foundation[edit | edit source]

See also: Ocracoke History Letzembourg first appeared on a European map in 1585, after John White made explorations along the North Carolina shoreline. Settlements of small colonists were reported as early as the 17th century, but it wasn't until the State Government stepped in during the early 18th century that the town began to "boom" as a community of fishermen, farmers, mariners, and pilots who manned the treacherous waters both offshore and along Ocracoke Island.

Establishment[edit | edit source]

The Grand Duchy of Letzembourg was officially established on 20 December 2015 by the Grand Duke Christian I, after some lesser-known micronational projects, and a career within the Grand Republic of Delvera. Letzembourg was created as a personal project by the Grand Duke, and was originally intended to serve as a pacific micronation, open to diplomacy with all serious micronations. Upon the foundation of Letzembourg, Christian I became less active within Delvera, focusing more on his own personal project. He single-handedly founded the Grand Duchy of Letzembourg, later gaining help from a few close friends and external citizens, earning a good reputation within the micronational community.

Expansion[edit | edit source]

On 12 January 2016, Christian I signed a bill which allowed three new borders to be drawn and added to Letzembourg. Two days later, the government of Letzembourg passed a bill which allowed the nation to annex its largest piece of territory, which was located in Antarctica, bordering St. Charlie. The new territory was named the "Territory of Cruz." After the union with Karnia-Ruthenia, this territorial claim was abandoned.

A Greater Letzembourg[edit | edit source]

The Duchy of Gretzenmacher during flood season

After his official renunciation, Christian I removed all of his privately-owned property from the jurisdiction of the Grand Republic of Delvera, and officially incorporated it into the Grand Duchy of Letzembourg. The private property, which is located in south-central North Carolina) was then renamed from "Norden," to "Gretzenmacher," which is a modified spelling of the Luxembourgish administrative division, Grevenmacher. Gretzenmacher is home to the previous Prime Minister of Letzembourg, Charles, Duke of Victoria.

The Rebellion of Two[edit | edit source]

On 20 January 2016, the national government received a notification from two Letzembourgish citizens of a "rebellion," claiming secession Grand Duchy. The reasons behind the rebellion were unknown, and Letzembourgish government decided that it would be best to ignore the threats from the two citizens. The Grand Duke was then contacted personally by one of said citizens, who declared war against the national government. Seeing that Letzembourg is a neutral nation, the delcaration of war was immediately denied, and business carried on as usual throughout the Grand Duchy. The two citizens were then charged and temporarily suspended from the nation[38].

Immigration Campaign[edit | edit source]

In late January 2016, the offices of the Minstry of Immigration, the Cabinet and the Letzembourgish Military Command issued a formal communique on Letzembourgish News Site, explaining that they are in desperate need of new members. With approval of Grand Duke Christian I, these offices launched the Letzembourgish Immigration Campaign, which offered all new citizens accepted after 26 January 2016, a position within the government. These offices agreed that before any position could be granted, the applications would be carefully reviewed to ensure validity and safety of Letzembourgish citizens serving in these positions. The results, despite not having been published, did not represent a large increase in the number of citizens, but was considered a relative success.

Union with Karnia-Ruthenia[edit | edit source]

The State Flag of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire

On 18 May 2016, after weeks of diplomatic talks and negotiation with the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia, the Grand Duke of Letzembourg, already a member of the Karno-Ruthenian Government, presented a manifest demanding its unification with Empire. Relying on certain prestige and no opposition from the Imperial and Royal Government, the Emperor-King announced the government accepted the terms of the manifest. The union was made official with the proclamation of the Empire, transforming the Grand Duchy in an associate state of the Empire.

Imperial Period (2016 - present)[edit | edit source]

Argadia joins the Empire[edit | edit source]

The Duchy of Argadia is a member state of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire and was formerly under Imvrassian vassalship. It is located in Samos Island, Hellenic Republic. It was founded by Aggelos, Duke of Argadia as a province of the then Principality of Imvrassia and consists of one house. It was maintained into the Kingdom of Imvrassia until 23 June 2016, when they gained independence from Imvrassia, but remained ruled by the Crown of Imvrassia.

On 01 July 2016, after weeks of negotiation and strengthening the historic friendship between Imvrassia and Ruthenia, it was decided that the smallest province of Imvrassia, Argadia, that became independent from Imvrassia on 23 June 2016 would join the Empire as a duchy. The status of the Duchy of Argadia was established to be equal to the other member states of the Empire, but strengthened the European side of the micronation, becoming the third state member of Karnia-Ruthenia established on the continent.

Annexation of Appinfeldt[edit | edit source]

The Duchy of Appinfeldt is a member state of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire, located in w:, United States of America. It was founded by Michael I, Duke of Appinfeldt as a state member with status of corpus separatum of Karnia-Ruthenia. On 08 November 2016, after weeks of negotiation and strengthening the historic friendship between the sovereigns, it was decided that Michael I, Duke of Appinfeldt would join the Empire as duke. The status of the Duchy of Argadia was established to be equal to the other member states of the Empire.

The Tsechian Federation[edit | edit source]

Within the Empire, the forces of opposition to the Dual Monarchy lost their disposition, leading to the creation of the Tsechian Federation on 25 December 2016, a micronation composed mostly of Ethnic Czechs who refused Oscar I as their king, despite joining the Empire. The number of citizens grew little, but guaranteed a place for another culture within the Empire, making more heterogeneous the ethnic composition of Karnia-Ruthenia. However, agreements reached between Karnians and the Emperor-King made it possible for a small portion of the territory to be under direct domination of the Empire - the Duchy of Taschen - only as a "moderating protection" if necessary. The founders were Archduke Anton of Karnia and Grand Duke Calvin of Svalonia, a direct opponent to the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

The January coup attempt[edit | edit source]

Main article: 2017 Karno-Ruthenian coup d'état attempt

The 2017 Karno-Ruthenian coup d'état attempt, also known as the "January coup d'état attempt" was an unsuccessful coup d'etat in Letzembourg, against the government of Karnia-Ruthenia. The Republican Robert Bailey attempted to overthrow the government of Guilherme, Duke of Libertia and Archduke Anton of Karnia just five hours after acquire Karno-Ruthenian citizenship. Bailey was succeeded in contact several ministers of State in an attempt to secure support to invalidate the mandate of the Prime Minister of Karnia and the Minister-President of Ruthenia. All the people contacted by Bailey to join his endeavor to create a "Merchant Republic" refused to follow confusing ideas, and eventually the coup ended with his conviction and in a return to the status quo ante. There were no significant consequences.

Adhesion to the Empire[edit | edit source]

On 19 February 2017, the Imperial Government was surprised by a manifesto[39] issued by the Principality of Scotia, in which the princely government requires the union of the principality to the Empire, making it a member state of Karnia-Ruthenia. The next day, the Principality of Nossia, which had been discussing a possible union for months, opted for a different output after judging that there would be much interference from the Empire in their internal affairs: it requested that the principality, instead of becoming a member-state, was transformed into a protectorate.

After hours of discussion, the Imperial and Royal Council approved the union of Scotia to the Empire, but made demands about Nossia: the protectorate would last for a month and at the end of the term, or the principality would join the Empire, or would be independent again. Despite the relatively peaceful period, the principality chose to maintain its independence through a referendum held on 16 March 2017, the result of which was recognized by the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia the following day[40].

Antonian Revolution[edit | edit source]

Main article: Antonian Revolution

The Antonian Revolution was a political revolution in Tsechia, which resulted in the collapse of the Tsechian government after disagreements between the Regent and Head of State of the Tsechian Federation, Anton Wenzel and the Protector of the Tsechian Federation and Head of Government, Calvin Gustav. The revolution was first an internal affair in Tsechia, but spread after the between rebel forces loyal to the government of Calvin Gustav exposed their intention to declare independence from Karnia-Ruthenia. With little collateral damage and no change in the daily life of the Empire, Gustav's attempt to declare independence failed by sheer lack of adherence to his plans and unknown figure, but also demonstrated the confidence of the citizens in the imperial government, which, acting with leniency, was much less harsh than expected and, in part contradicting the claims of the Tsechian government, maintained its civil rights and citizenship.

Reconquest of Carpathia[edit | edit source]

On 10 October 2016, Domnitor Alexander XII of Carpathia informed the Emperor-King the desire to secede the principality from the Empire. The request was accepted and made official by the Imperial Decree n. 049-2016. The principality, from that date until the fall of the Empire of Pavlov on 12 May 2017[41], was part of that Empire and, from this date to 21 June 2017, the principality was virtually without government, but nominally under the control of the Government of Hasanistan.

As Karnia-Ruthenia and Pavlov became rival nations until Pavlov's fall, a law that made Pavlovians personas non gratas remained valid, and the Hasanistani Government broke diplomatic relations with Karnia-Ruthenia to force the Emperor-King to review the decree. At first, the Emperor lamented the rupture of diplomatic relations, but understood the motives and would not revoke the decree. However, the Hasanistani Government reported that this was a measure to draw attention to the problem, which was harshly criticized by the Imperial Government for being an extreme measure. Since then, the Hasanistani Government, the former Domnitor of Carpathia and the Grand Duke of Letzembourg have sealed an agreement to resolve the impasse.

With the connivance of the Emperor-King Oscar of Karnia-Ruthenia, also a Domnitor deposed the previous year, Christian of Letzembourg contacted the then Domnitor Alexander XII to reunite the principality to the Empire. The result of these negotiations is the Treaty of Gretzenmarcher, signed by both on 22 June 2017, which incorporated the Carpathia to the Empire after Alexander XII abdicate in favor of Christian of Letzembourg. The cession of Carpathia was seen as a goodwill sample from the Hasanistani Government which was accepted with relief by the Empire, which in addition to expanding, solved a serious diplomatic issue.

Strengthened Democracy[edit | edit source]

After the Reconquest of Carpathia and a strengthening of its image abroad, as well as the participation in intermicronational diplomatic events like the Micronational Republican Forum and the Congress of Colo, the prestige of the Empire led several micronations to discuss the probability of joining the Empire, but this process would be barred by the new Constitution, produced by the Constitutional Commission and approved by the Emperor-King on 01 August 2017.

The new constitution, the third in force throughout history, ensured numerous new rights to the population, liek a more representative and less confused democracy through a unified parliament, the Imperial Diet. Making the state leaner and more efficient was one of the commission's biggest challenges, which made the Empire a unitary and cohesive state. This made the Empire more distant from the Austro-Hungarian model chosen at first, which made the state structure more like a modern state.

Concomitantly, there was a great flourishing of national culture and great strides towards the creation of a common nationalist sentiment, despite the differences between the regions of the Empire. This made possible the elevation of Carpathia to the status of Kingdom within the Empire and even to the succession to the throne of Horvatia, which would no longer be in personal union with the House of Götzö-Thomaz-Rocha, which in turn would also be a further departure from the terms of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016.

Horvatian Nationalism[edit | edit source]

The House of Agram, from August 2017, instilled nationalist sentiments in the local population to force its own rise to power. Through long negotiation and good relations between the Imperial Crown the then Ban, the Agrams would ascend to the Throne of Horvatia. In the early morning of 03 September, Oscar I abdicated the throne in favor of Prince Joseph Cicero of Agram, father of Ban of Horvatia and head of the ducal house. Horvatia continued a country within the Empire, but the post of Ban of Horvatia was declared descontinued.

With strong popular pressure to verify the progress promised through the change in the reigning house of Horvatia, King Joseph Cicero abdicated in favor of his son, Duke Weslley of Agram, 25 days after taking the throne. Unable to verify any measure that could sustain his reign, King Weslley abdicated on 03 October, having reigned for only 05 days. He resigned by returning the throne to the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia. After the event, the ducal family, and especially the Duke of Agram, abstained from participating in national politics, being exonerated from their posts and leaving for exile.

Axvalley joins the Empire[edit | edit source]

Founded as the Principality of Axvalley, it was a Austenasian Crown Dependency annexed by an Imperial Decree that same year. At that time as it still today, Axvalley is governed by its founder, Rubens Machado, who ruled as Governing Commissioner in the name of the Austenasian ruler.

Satellite View from Axvalley, 2013.

After some prosperity in the first years of existence, all micronational activity expired in Axvalley, and the new times called for new measures - at least, that was the vision of Emperor-King Oscar. A longtime friend of the Duke of Kürzung and having addressed the issue on several other occasions, he succeeded in mid-August, when the then Governor of Axvalley sent an act to the Austenasian parliament informing the desire for emancipation, which was accepted by the Austenasian government only on 06 August 2017, which mistakenly believed that the project would dissolve.

Francis Palace in Axvalley, 2013.

With the treaty of merging signed on 01 August 2017, the imperial government was informed and received the news with enthusiasm. Rubens Machado had already participated in the celebrations for the Empire's Day in his new capacity[42], but the treaty was delayed to be presented to the Imperial Diet in the face of worsening relations between Austenasia and members of the Congress of Colo, of which Karnia-Ruthenia was part. Although not directly involved and without any connection with Austenasia, the imperial government opted to wait for a moment of less tension.

The treaty was approved in the afternoon of 04 October 2017[43] and the fact was celebrated by the government, which saw its population and territory expand significantly. At the Imperial Court the sensation was of a more personal joy, since it now had a figure who had the Emperor's graces and held him in the highest esteem.

Internal threats[edit | edit source]

Despite the exponential growth of the Empire, most of the threats originated from abroad. However, the greatest enemy ever faced by the Empire was a citizen. Thomas of Cumagne was King of Cumagne and reached the position of Imperial Chancellor.

After several months of cooperation and having effectively aided the Empire, he began to resent the influence of the Duke of Libertia and aspired to violate the constitution and probably to remove the Emperor from the throne.

His intentions are still unclear today, but on 24 October 2017, he was removed from Chancellor's post after he overthrew the official forum of the Empire, leading to the loss of hundreds of government documents and hacking government emails. However, for months before that, he devised a scheme, simulating two micronations to humiliate the Emperor and incriminate him to create a false war - the Juznoslavia War.

Over the next few weeks, he faked data to justify himself and defame the Emperor as a tyrant and a liar. Cumagne left the Empire, taking with him the majority of the population of Francophone origin and placing the Empire under unfounded threats, but widely diffused by third parties with shady interests.

In January of the following year, the Empire regained the number of citizens that existed prior to the "Malaise", nomenclature to define the chaos that Thomas of Cumagne attempted to install in the Empire and on 23 February 2018, the trial to judge Thomas de Cumagne for more than 10 criminal conduct ended with the partial dismissal of the charges, once proven the guilt of Thomas de Cumagne.

With the matter duly settled, many traces of his administration were erased, and the traitor's nickname was indelibly associated with his name.

Expansion to the East[edit | edit source]

The Empire's ambitions to expand never were a State secret, but neither were at any time a political platform of government. After several problems caused by its constant growth, as the infamous "Malaise de Cumagne", the territorial expansion was a subject watched with the utmost caution. The entry into the Empire of a citizen of Japanese origin, Carl, Count Rostrand, was providential to realize one of the greatest expansionist contracts of the history of the Empire.

Although very young and with difficulties to express himself in English, Carl von Rostrand had already participated in several other micronations and micronational organizations in Asia. Ambitious and controversial, he tried to negotiate the establishment of a micronation to be governed by him between late 2017 and early 2018, when he finally succeeded.

After a long meeting between the Count and the Emperor-King, it was decided that the micronation Hakodate would be created in the Japanese city of the same name, occupying the Hakodate Park region. Having doubts about the maturity and viability of the project, even with great support from the imperial government, it was decided that Hakodate would be a concession, not an autonomous micronation.[44]

With the signing of the Treaty of Hakodate, the Empire now extended between the North and South America, Europe, Antarctica and, finally, Asia.

Reorganization in the North[edit | edit source]

On 01 July 2018, the Emperor-King Oscar I issued the Imperial Decree n. 152-2O18[45], that established Martial Law over the Principality of Scotia, a state of the Empire located in the Republic of Ireland. The reason behind the first martial law in Karno-Ruthenian history was the “ineptitude of the hereditary ruler of the Principality of Scotia”. In the text, the Emperor-King demanded a public commitment of Prince James IX & I for the return of the activities after more than one year without activity without prior government authorization, what is considered Crime Against the Administrative Order (Articles 17 and 19 of the Criminal Code). The decree also stated that the absence of manifestation would be understood as renunciation of his succession rights in his name and his descendants.

That same night, the answer came, but unexpectedly. In a snobbish and playful tone, the prince simply said that he “did not wait for this news”. Outraged, the Imperial Government maintained its demands and waited for the 24-hour period for demonstration. In fact, waited for 28 hours until the 02 July, when Prince James IX & I was deposed as Prince of Scotia and transformed into a common citizen. Legal measures against their administrative inappropriateness, although foreseen in law and previous decree, were not taken at first[46].

Between the decree of the Martial Law on 01 July and 07 July, the governance of the principality was under the supervision of the Command of the Fourth Army, quartered at Viden and summoned by the Emperor to enforce law and order. On the evening of 07 July, however, they were dispersed.

The Imperial Decree n. 154-2018[47] united the states with Scottish and Irish culture, Appinfeldt and Scotia, which was renamed to Grand Duchy of Nordinsel. The new state with geographic possessions on both sides of the Atlantic would be governed by the most eligible of the candidates, Michael of Appinfeldt, who in addition to renowned ability as a military and politician, also had Scottish and Irish ancestry.

The African Protectorate[edit | edit source]

Main articles: Treaty of Saint Michael of Socotra and Socotra

Flag of the Protectorate of Socotra.

On 16 August 2018, Emperor-King Oscar of Karnia-Ruthenia and Duke Michael of Solisia as Representative of Lemurian Empire, Captain-General of the Realm and Knight Grand Commander of the Lemurian Sword, signed the Treaty of Saint Michael of Socotra, which ensured that Lemuria would deliver the sovereignty over the Archipelago of Socotra (including Socotra Island, Abd al Kuri, Darsah and Samhah, hereinafter referred to as Socotra) with effect from 01 September 2018 and the Karno-Ruthenian Government declared that it would annex Socotra to the Empire with effect from 01 September 2018.

The parties agreed to keep the terms of the treaty indefinitely, preserving the conditions that provide the signing of the treaty, stating that if the implementation of the treaty becomes infeasible to both parties, the signatories would to restore the status quo ante. The treaty also provides that Socotra would be a protectorate under imperial administration and the Karno-Ruthenian Government also declared its basic policies regarding Socotra.

Democratic Manifestations of November 2018[edit | edit source]

With the end of the I Legislature, tumultuous by the attempted coup d'etat perpetrated during the Malaise, in July 2018, a new electoral law was enacted. Written by Wilhelm von und zu Hochbach, the new electoral law would embody the democratic tradition of the Empire, while enabling a party relationship in the political scenario in highly professional level.

It occurs that national political activity after the coup has declined. The society was accommodated with a long-term and moderate cabinet, and adherence to a party system was not exceptionally inviting, and only one political party was formed, the Patriotic Party, whose legalization took place over a longer period and has now become the only political party with permission to contest the elections. The Constitutional Party, the Moderate Party and the Objectivist Party were dissolved with the advent of the new law.

With the lack of another political party, the elections scheduled for July 2018 were impossible. The Government tried to recruit more citizens, made several campaigns to favor political activity and was unsuccessful. At the beginning of November, political leaders from the Patriotic Party began a brief but effective campaign to force the situation to resolve, demanded the convening of new elections, while the Minister of Justice insisted on respecting the Constitution and maintaining the requirement that there should be at least one more party to convene elections for the II Legislature. On 06 November, leaders were invited by the Emperor to a meeting.

"Annexation of Daugavia", Government Propaganda, 01 December 2018.

After a long meeting, it was decided that the constitutional requirement would be respected and that the leaders would endeavor to co-opt more citizens and try to foster interest in national politics. From this meeting, the first sign of success was the approach of Margrave Karácsony and the Emperor of figures in the Lusophone sector of micronationalism, especially Ulli von und zu Eibenland-Sansbeurg.

Created on 30 November 2018, the Duchy of Daugavia is a small monarchy surrounded by the city of São Paulo, a few kilometers away from the capital and heart of the Empire, Persenburg. Founded by Deltarian immigrants, it was headed by Duke Ulli of Daugavia, the reigning duke and until then, one of the youngest and most promising figures in Lusophone micronationalism. Leaving his home micronation behind with open doors, he ventured into the English-speaking sector of micronationalism and enjoyed sovereignty for a few hours. The founding of the duchy was aided by the Emperor-King of Karnia-Ruthenia, but conditioned to its future union with the Empire, becoming the fifteenth entity of the Empire, bringing a population of four people, being three women and therefore, composing the territory of the empire with greater female population until the present through the signinature of the Treaty of Ephigeniastadt[48].

On 10 December, Eric Harris started a political campaign for the creation of a new political party. After consultations with the Emperor, his original plan to create a Republican Party or Labor Party was changed to create a Liberal-Democrat Party.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Definition of Micronations, The Wikipedia, 28 October 2016.
  2. Foundation Act of the Kingdom of Ruthenia, in Portuguese
  3. Royal Decree nº 001-012
  4. Royal Decree nº 041 (22-03-2015)
  5. Ruthenia's new Capital, The Ruthenian Observer
  6. Constitution of the Kingdom of Ruthenia
  7. Crisis!, The Ruthenian Observer
  8. PROVOCATION!, The Ruthenian Observer
  9. CONSPIRACY!, The Ruthenian Observer
  10. Oscar I estabilish a Royal Dictatorship, The Ruthenian Observer
  11. Ruthenia Annexed the Savage Islands, The Ruthenian Observer
  12. Headlines - June/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  13. Decree of Annexation of the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land
  14. Headlines - June/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  15. Kingdom of Ruthenia Granted AMU Membership, AMU Bulletin
  16. Ruthenia Granted AMU membership, The Ruthenian Observer
  17. Headlines - July/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  18. Announcement of the Invitation to Acceptance of the Throne of Bessabia
  19. Renunciation to the Throne, by the Shah Jaffar Shah of Badakhshan, 18 September 2015.
  20. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  21. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  22. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  23. "Down With the False King!", 'Micronations & Alternative Policies' Facebook Group, 22 October 2015.
  24. "Down With the False King!" Campaign, La Libertá Newspaper, 22 October 2015
  25. Long live the Kingdom of Rus’ (and the Kingdom of Ruthenia), by Cesidio Tallini.
  26. "Down With the False King!", 'Micronations & Alternative Policies' Facebook Group, 22 October 2015.
  27. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  28. "The Ruthenian Observer", 21 December 2015.
  29. "Acrinian Anexation Act", 15 December 2015.
  30. "The Ruthenian Observer", 21 December 2015.
  31. "Kingdom of Acrin admitted into the Confederation as third state", North American Confederation Government Press Office, 10 May 2016.
  32. "Empire denounces Treaty; Acrin leaves NAC!", by the Imperial and Royal Government, 21 March 2018.
  33. "Imperial Communiqué to the North American Confederation", 21 March 2018.
  34. Decree of Annexation of the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land
  35. Headlines - June/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  36. Treaty of Nison, 23 September 2016.
  37. County of Luxemburg, Wikipedia.com
  38. "The Rebellion of Two", Letzembourgish News Site,
  39. "Karnia Manifesto", by James IX & I, 19 February 2017.
  40. Imperial Decree n. 082-2017, that restores the independence of Nossia and other provisions. 17 March 2017.
  41. "PAVLOV DISSOLVED", Official website of the government of Hasanistan, 22 June 2017.
  42. August List of Honors, His Imperial and Royal Majesty's Government, 01 August 2017
  43. L-A1-05 : about the ratification of the Treaty of Kürzung​, His Imperial and Royal Majesty's Government, 04 October 2017.
  44. "TREATY OF HAKODATE SIGNED; THE EMPIRE EXPANDS!", Imperial and Royal Government, 06 February 2018.
  45. "Imperial Decree n. 152-2O18", Imperial and Royal Government, 01 July 2018.
  46. "Nordinsel founded; End of Martial Law", Imperial and Royal Government, 08 July 2018.
  47. "Imperial and Royal Decree n. 154-2018", Imperial and Royal Government, 07 July 2018.
  48. "Daugavia joins the Empire!", Imperial and Royal Government, 03 December 2018.