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Kingdom of Ruthenia
Portuguese: Reino da Rutênia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Nós Venceremos a Inveja com a Ajuda de Deus!"
"We will overcome envy with God's help"
Anthem: '''Ária Paulistana
Status Constituent realm of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire
and largest city
Official languages English and Portuguese
Demonym Ruthenian
Government Constitutional monarchy;
Personal union through
dual monarchy;
Corporative federalism
 •  King Oscar I
 •  Imperial Chancellor Thomas Karácsony-Maryen
 •  Foundation 19 November 2014 
 •  Karno-Ruthenian Compromise 10 March 2016 
 •  Karno-Ruthenian Empire 1 August 2016 
 •  estimate 19 (residents)
 •  2020 census 99 (citizens)
HDI (2018)Increase 0.941
very high · 1st
Currency Ruthenian Mark (RMK)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
a. Official website
b. Dual Monarchy union after the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016 signing.

Ruthenia, officially the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Portuguese: Reino da Rutênia), is a confederate constitutional monarchy located in South America, Europe and Eastern Antarctica. Claiming approximately three kilometers of territory, its capital is Persenburg-Götzödorf, having previously been Alto da Solidão.

A constitutional monarchy since 6 February 2015[1], was from the creation of the Kingdom until February 2015 an absolute monarchy, and for one week between January and February 2015, the King exercised a royal dictatorship[2]. After this, the Ruthenian democracy has become stable and has been perpetuated ever since.

The kingdom became part of the Karno-Ruthenian Empire in August 2016, after the signature of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016, being the most developed state of the Empire and also the host of the imperial capital, Persenburg.

History[edit | edit source]

Foundation[edit | edit source]

The first settlements on the land now claimed by Ruthenia date from the first half of the eighteenth century, having been founded with the arrival of the Royal Family of Portugal in Brazil. With the fall of Napoleon and the return of the House of Braganza to Portugal, the House of Thomaz-Rocha decided to remain in the region, having established power and prestige among the locals.

From then on, the "ruling family" of Ruthenia ignored the government and wielded autonomy over the area, not being contested by any authority and acquiring more subjects. On 19 November 2014, after nearly two centuries of uninterrupted exercise of power in the region, a major step was taken. After gaining permission from his father, the now Oscar of Ruthenia established the Throne of Ruthenia, declaring Ruthenia an independent kingdom[3].

The following day, the flag and the national coat of arms, the royal titles, the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Finance and the Royal Household, Defence and Immigration were established, and religious freedom in the kingdom was granted[4]. In the early hours of 21 November, the Kingdom of Acrin became the first nation to recognize Ruthenia, followed by the German Reich of Mednyi and the People's Republic of Hashima. A day later, Ruthenia also established mutual recognition with the Kingdom of Wiltogo.

The first three months of Ruthenia's existence were plagued by uncertainty and political instability, but King Oscar was able to maintain order and develop the kingdom. On 22 March 2015, the capital was officially moved to the south, to Persenburg[5][6], officially moving from Alto da Solidão. An Absolute Monarchy in its beginning, everything has changed with the Constitution of 2015[7]. Ruthenia became a confederate constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Ruthenia was the Head of State and the Chancellor was the Head of Government, and the Power of the King was splited among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.

On 30 March 2015, the Royal House decided, after some controversy, to retrospectively recognise Ari of Ruthenia - father of King Oscar - as having been the first King of the country. Despite Oscar having exercised dominion over the government from its foundation on 19 November, it was only on 20 November that he was formally declared King, and so it was decided that for a few hours between 19 and 20 November, his father, the Ari of Ruthenia, had been the de jure King of Ruthenia.

The Scandinavian Affair[edit | edit source]

Cover of the official reply of Ruthenian Government to the Government of Munkkia.

Widely reported in national and foreign media, the "Scandinavian Affair" was a crisis which started with a referendum to decide which national language would be adopted by Ruthenia. Lusophones and Anglophones micronationals had split the government, disputing for power and accusing the king of favoring one faction or the other. The plebiscite ended with the victory of the supporters of the English language. With Portuguese limited to being the language of the court, the Lusophones began an exodus from Ruthenia. The Anglophones, led by the Duke of Erdene, tried to incite rebellion, later being punished[8].

During this difficult time, the Empire of Munkkia approached the Ruthenian government, proposing a union between the two micronations. The Ruthenian people failed to approve the union, not wishing to have their faith and culture turned into a minority. The union failed and the relationship between Munkkia and Ruthenia was severely damaged[9]. One of the most tragic moments was a false accusation of espionage made against a Norwegian subject, which caused national uproar, despite having also been an example of popular disapproval against union of the two countries[10].

The decision to not join Munkkia was taken during a meeting convened by King Oscar, during which it was also decided that the King would participate more actively in power at least until a Constitution comes into force. Also on this occasion, it was announced that Ruthenia would be, until further notice, an absolute monarchy, and the King would exercise, with support from the General Assembly, a "royal dictatorship"[11]. After the estabilishment of a constitutional monarchy, Ruthenia became a democratic micronation.

Two months later, in March 2015, the Oscar of Ruthenia and Mathias Magnussen, then President of Munkkia estabilished informal conversations, restoring a peaceful distance between the nations. Munkkia would be disestablished in 2016.

The Union with Libertia and Savage Islands[edit | edit source]

Original Declaration of Independence of Libertia.

The Principality of Lomellina, a former ally of Ruthenia, was an enclave and exclave with self-proclaimed territories in Antarctica, Italy and Greenland. In 20 November 2014, the Lomellinian Aristocracy proposed a government change in which the High Chanceller Richard Abreo-Louis had complete ruling power over the aristocracy members, in a decision that did not pleased Prince Guilheme of Lomellina, since the prince had gave great autonomy for aristocracy.

His denial caused the aristocracy to protest and started an anti-absolutist campaign against the prince on 26 November. The same day, the "Lomellinian Revolt" began and Richard Abreo-Louis was crowned as the constitutional successor of Prince Guilherme and his reign lasted only 3 days. On 01 December, Guilherme I was officially overthrowed by Richard Abreo-Louis after the capture of Castello di Valle, Lomellina's capital city. After 04 December, Richard turned the nation into a State in which the only territorial posession was Castello di Valle, thus creating the State of Lomellina.

Savage Islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean.

The dethroned D. Guilherme I, went to exiled to the Autonomous Kingdom of the Savage Islands, which was formed by his cousin, King Francisco II. After a week in exile, D. Guilherme took the conclusion that he still held ruling power in Lomellina Consolato and founded the Duchy of Libertia within the city along with his Ducal Family. On 30 January 2015, D. Guilherme established contact with the King Oscar of Ruthenia, with the idea of annexing Libertia into his project, the Kingdom of Ruthenia, a request that was instantly accepted, since the two established a strong relation of trust and friendship. King Oscar appointed Guilherme as Chancellor of Ruthenia and placed his family between the other Ruthenian noble houses[12].

On 23 February 2015, Francisco II abdicated and his cousin, D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer, then Duke of Libertia and Chancellor of Ruthenia, now became also King of Savage Islands. The Kingdom was transformed into the Grand Duchy of the Savage Islands and annexed to Ruthenia[13].

On 19 June 2015, D. Guilherme da Lomellina e Berenguer resigned to his title and dissolved the kingdom due the Portuguese Republic and the group called People's Alternative for the Canary Islands are both involved in a territorial dispute that could create diplomatic, political and physical problems to the Kingdom of Ruthenia and the Duchy of Libertia. On the same day, the King abdicated his Savish titles and dissolved officially the Grand Duchy. This fact ended the occupation which lasted four months and 17 days[14].

Ruthenian Antarctica[edit | edit source]

Map of land claims of the members of the AMU, 2015.

After the loss of Savage Islands, the Ruthenian Government reinforced the expansion plans. On 30 June, Ruthenia annexed the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land[15], located on the eastern portion of Antarctica, which came to be known as Grand Duchy of Gaussland[16]. The Ruthenian government announced that "was to promote a better world through the protection of environment as well as in respect to the imperial ambitions que can only be filled by such attitudes".

The Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, the part of Antarctica lying between Cape Penck, at 87°43’E, and Cape Filchner, at 91°54’E, became an integral part of the Ruthenian State from the date of the decree issued by King Oscar, and was admitted as the sixteenth member of the Antarctic Micronational Union[17][18][19].

The Kingdom of the Golden Dragon and the Throne of Lion[edit | edit source]

Main article: Overthrow of the Badakistani monarchy

Abdication of Shah Jaffar Shah of Badakhshan, 18 September 2015.

From the end of 2014 and the first half of 2015, the Brazilian micronationalism noted the creation of multiple projects lasting a few weeks and denoted a lack of professionalism and commitment to the expansion of micronationalism. When Filipe Machado founded the State of Bessabia[20], known as the "Kingdom of the Golden Dragon", the Crown of Bessabia was offered to the King of Ruthenia, who accepted.[21].

Less than a month after the establishment of the personal union, one of the most important allies of Ruthenia among Portuguese-speaking micronations, the Badakistan, went into a dizzying dismantling of democracy and disappearance of micronational activity. In this scenario, the Ruthenian diplomacy interfered in the case and through intense negotiations, the King of Ruthenia became, on 20 September, the Shah of Badakhshan[22]. Through that act, the King of the Ruthenians became an imperial figure and Ruthenia increased its relevance in his country of origin. Although not considered a change of treatment or a transition from a royal centralized government to a imperial centralized government, profound political changes would be operated from that moment.

Oscar's reign over Badakhshan have been relatively successful and well accepted by most reputable micronations, but he became a highly unpopular monarch. His subjects rejected him as a foreigner oppressor, a view supported by enemies within Lusophone sector. Between the end of November and the first week of December of 2015, the political situation was unsustainable. The return of former monarch Jaffar Sheri brought concerns and uncertainties. Willing to regain the throne, he sought the support of other micronations and garnered support among the aristocracy and the military[23].

Anticipating the coup through informations from the Ruthenian Secret Service, the Emperor dissolved the Majlis and took upon himself the command of the armed forces. Provided with dictatorial powers, contacted the Stadhouder of the United Provinces of Mauricia to handed over sovereignty over the territory, ending the Badakhshan as an independent and sovereign micronation[24]. A union treaty was signed in the last hours of 08 December 2015. Badakhshan became a province of a traditional Brazilian micronation and the then Emperor, deprived of his power, assumed the title of "Hereditary Lord of Badakistan Lands"[25].

The October coup attempt[edit | edit source]

Ruthenian propaganda, by André Vieira.

On 22 October 2015, Nailimiskam Lisavovich Okbob, an Ukrainian micronationalist, announced that it had established in 2007 its own "Kingdom of Ruthenia"[26]. However, they were never presented evidence of that foundation and the usurper was aware of the original Ruthenia, including the fact that he was a member of the M.A.G.N.A. Group, a Facebook group dedicated to convivial Ruthenians and friends of the micronation.

Ignoring the arguments of the legitimate Government, Okbob made maximum publicity possible, trying to promote his micronation as legitimate and as part of Ahaanian Union, a micronation founded earlier by the usurper. As a result, the Ruthenian government, through the Department of Information, launched a massive advertising campaign, highlighting the originality of the project and making it clear, through the slogan "The one and only Kingdom of Ruthenia, that there would be room for only one Ruthenia[27].

Treated as attempted coup by the Ruthenian Government, the usurper was supported only by Cesidio Tallini, who tried to force a "peace agreement" where both micronations coexisted[28]. Oscar I vehemently objected and accused the usurpers of promoting what he called a "fraud." The Legitimate Ruthenia was supported by the Republic of Lostisland, the Empire of Pavlov, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes, the Kingdom of Gaston, the Consulat of Surland, the Empire of Lemuria, the Kingdom of Ruritania and the Imperial Grand Duchy of Lundenwic.

It is regarded as the end of the incident the "abdication" presented by the usurper to the throne of Ruthenia[29].

The Autumn Revolution in Acrin[edit | edit source]

During the first four months of existence of the Kingdom of Acrin, the King and his government were devoted to foreign relations, the formulation of their national symbols, which suffered greatly Ruthenian influence and attempts to attract investment and establish connections with other micronations, but misguided attitudes that made the inexperienced government of the time lose much of their enthusiasm and credibility.

Acrinian coat of arms under the Ruthenian rule.

Over the next eight months, no activity was observed. The Ruthenian Government, the greatest ally of Acrin at the time, tried numerous times to contact, either in order to get news or in order to propose a union of crowns led by Ruthenia. In November 2015, when Acrin and Ruthenia would complete one year of existence, King Eitan was appointed to the Order of the Foundation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia. Before the failed attempt to contact the King of his award, the Ruthenian government began formulating a audacious plan.

On 19 November 2015, the Ruthenian government issued an ultimatum: either Acrin answer their messages within one month counting of that date, or the King of the Ruthenians, as Aristocratic Chieftain of the Clan of Acrin, would claim the throne for himself. Although this version of events be announced by the Ruthenian government, the first contact attempt occurred through Forum, nine days before the e-mail was sent to King Eitan and the government of Acrin.

There was no answer. In the words of King Eitan himself when he made the King of the Ruthenians the Aristocratic Cheftain of the Clans of Acrin, he explained that "You lead all the families as one aristocrat". Based on this interpretation, Oscar of Ruthenia not only was the last active Acrinian noble, as was also responsible for leading the nobility of Acrin. Thus, with the government abandoned, it would be an obligation of Ruthenians to protect the micronation.

Through a special decree of 15 December 2015, Oscar of Ruthenia annexed Acrin and dethroned King Eitan, granting to him, however, the title of Prince Szteinbaum. In the same act, he removed the entire autonomy of Acrin, making the kingdom a little more than a province. Other executive acts were issued by the new king, who ordered new symbols, renamed the capital and advertising his ascension, which was greeted with enthusiasm in Ruthenia[30]. By becoming part of a larger kingdom, Acrin acquired more visibility, even though it cost their entire independence. Ruthenia, in turn, was little benefited, since the so-called "Autumn Revolution" only increased their territories and announced the start of its most aggressive and imperialist actions.

Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016[edit | edit source]

National colors and symbols[edit | edit source]

Main article: Flags and symbols of Ruthenia

Politics[edit | edit source]

Internal affairs[edit | edit source]

Ruthenian passport cover.

Ruthenia was dominated by political and social unrest during its first three months of existence. Disputes between the nobles forced Ruthenia to become a constitutional monarchy. After the promulgation of the Constitution, Ruthenia experienced a major phase of social and political achievements for many different classes of society and incentives to the economy, in what would become called the "social justice phase". From then on, Ruthenia withdrew from its image of archaic monarchy and became more in line with modern views of progressive governance, assuming a westernized government while the traditions, visibly influenced by Eastern Europe, were absorbed by a prosperous society.

Foreign Affairs[edit | edit source]

Main article: Foreign relations of Ruthenia

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Kingdom, and negotiated treaties. The Ministry was led by the Foreign Minister, who is nominated by the King and who is also a member of the Council of State, the highest governing body of Ruthenia. After the signature of the Karno-Ruthenian Compromise of 2016, the foreign affairs of the kingdom were conducted by a common ministry.

Military[edit | edit source]

Ruthenia have some divisions of the Armed Forces of Karnia-Ruthenia to protect the kingdom, the King and subjects.

Economy[edit | edit source]

First series of Ruthenian Marks.

Agriculture represents the largest component of GDP of the Kingdom, especially in north. In south, Ruthenia is bordered by São Paulo City, which is considered the "financial capital of Brazil and Latin America", as it is the location for the headquarters of many major corporations and the country's most renowned banks and financial institutions. The per capita income for the kingdom is about US$ 4,000.

Energy[edit | edit source]

The energy that fuels the kingdom comes from several sources. In the north, there is the power supply from generators purchased in the Brazilian market and hydropower from rivers that make the border of the kingdom. In the south, the energy is purchased from the public company that provides the power supply to the city of São Paulo.

Transport[edit | edit source]

Road to Alto da Solidao, former capital of Ruthenia.

The means of transportation that are found in the realm differ between regions. In the northern portion of the kingdom, there are buses and cars, in addition to trucks, carts and tractors made available by the Ruthenian government for the movement of subjects between the Land of St. Stephen and the Land of St. Peter and Paul. Small boats are also used to transport people and cargo along the rivers in the kingdom. In the south, a wide network of public transport in the city of São Paulo favors the residents of this part of the kingdom, as well as privately-owned cars. The south region is served by bus, trains, subways, taxis, and has access to two Brazilian airports.

Geography and resources[edit | edit source]

Ruthenia possess a cultivable area, already assigned to grain for domestic consumption and for raising cattle for slaughter and subsequent sale, in addition to the aforementioned domestic consumption[31].

Typical livestock, widespread in Ruthenia.

Ruthenia is bathed by the Gurguéia River and the "Riacho das Lages", the latter known in Ruthenia as "Água Branca". There is also a dam, a lake (the "Lake of Dead River") and three wells, all intended for reservation and distribution of drinking water. Due to the high incidence of sunlight, plus the ability to generate hydroelectric power due to the stream that runs along the border to the north-northeast, Ruthenia also makes use of sunlight and power generators bought in Brazil.

The climate is hot and humid in the northern part of the kingdom, but in the uplands it is dry with high day-time temperatures and cool nights. The South Exclave has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate. In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). In winter, temperatures tend to range between 11 and 23 °C (52 and 73 °F).

Administrative regions[edit | edit source]

Main article: Administrative Divisions of Ruthenia

Education and healthcare[edit | edit source]

Despite Ruthenia having no schools or universities, the government allows students to study in foreign territories, mostly in Brazil, and the Royal House helps to fund university fees. Most jobs available within Ruthenia are agriculturally-related. The more qualified manpower provides services to the royal house or is employed abroad. Although there are no health centres or hospitals located within Ruthenia, use is made of nearby Brazilian hospitals.

Culture[edit | edit source]

Ruthenian culture retains much of the European influence originally brought by the Royal Family. It places an important emphasis on family, religion, and traditions in general, such as respect for holy days.

Language[edit | edit source]

Machado de Assis.
<sall>St. Stephen, King of Hungary, patron of Hungary and Ruthenia.

In everyday use, Portuguese is used by the majority of the Ruthenian people. Portuguese is also the official language in the Royal Court, but English and French also have regular use.

Religion[edit | edit source]

Cuisine[edit | edit source]

The Ruthenian cuisine is marked by the conspicuous use of meat in many of its traditional dishes. Typically, Ruthenians feed on rice accompanied by beans, quite varied green salad, meat and eggs. A popular dish is the barbecue, especially beef, served with sauces or with French bread. In Persenburg, popular dishes include lasagna, pizza, pancakes, and also the consumption of sweets such as cakes and pies, all inspired by the European habits of the inhabitants of the capital.

National holidays[edit | edit source]

Name Date Notes
New Year's Day 1 January The first day of the Gregorian year.
International Women's Day 8 March Celebration of respect, appreciation, and love towards women.
Easter Day Between 22 March and 25 April Celebrates the resurrection of Jesus.
International Workers' Day 1 May Honors the the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of the country.
Martyr's Day 17 July Tribute to Royal Passion-Bearers Nicholas II of Russia and his family.
King's Day 14 August Anniversary of His Royal Majesty, the King.
St Stephen's Day 16 August Tribute to the patron saint of Ruthenia and their Royal Family; Hungary's first king St. Stephen's Day, also the day of the Foundation of Hungary.
Armistice Day 11 November Commemoration of the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany and also in commemoration of both living and dead soldiers who served in any conflict.[32]
National Day 19 November The day of the Foundation of Ruthenia.
Christmas Day 25 December Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus.
New Year's Eve 31 December The final day of the Gregorian year; Saint Sylvester's Day.

External links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. King granted first Constitution for Ruthenia, The Ruthenian Observer
  2. Oscar I estabilish a Royal Dictatorship, The Ruthenian Observer
  3. Foundation Act of the Kingdom of Ruthenia, in Portuguese
  4. Royal Decree nº 001-012
  5. Royal Decree nº 041 (22-03-2015)
  6. Ruthenia's new Capital, The Ruthenian Observer
  7. Constitution of the Kingdom of Ruthenia
  8. Crisis!, The Ruthenian Observer
  9. PROVOCATION!, The Ruthenian Observer
  10. CONSPIRACY!, The Ruthenian Observer
  11. Oscar I estabilish a Royal Dictatorship, The Ruthenian Observer
  12. LIBERTIA FOR RUTHENIA!, The Ruthenian Observer
  13. Ruthenia Annexed the Savage Islands, The Ruthenian Observer
  14. Headlines - June/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  15. Decree of Annexation of the Kaiser Wilhelm II Land
  16. Headlines - June/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  17. Kingdom of Ruthenia Granted AMU Membership, AMU Bulletin
  18. Ruthenia Granted AMU membership, The Ruthenian Observer
  19. Headlines - July/2015, The Ruthenian Observer
  20. History of Bessabia
  21. Announcement of the Invitation to Acceptance of the Throne of Bessabia
  22. Renunciation to the Throne, by the Shah Jaffar Shah of Badakhshan, 18 September 2015.
  23. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  24. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  25. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  26. "Down With the False King!", 'Micronations & Alternative Policies' Facebook Group, 22 October 2015.
  27. "Down With the False King!" Campaign, La Libertá Newspaper, 22 October 2015
  28. Long live the Kingdom of Rus’ (and the Kingdom of Ruthenia), by Cesidio Tallini.
  29. "Down With the False King!", 'Micronations & Alternative Policies' Facebook Group, 22 October 2015.
  30. Ruthenian Observer #060, 20 December 2015.
  31. Geography, Official Website
  32. Law Project n. 009, establishing the Armistice Day in Ruthenia.