From Empire of Karnia-Ruthenia
Kingdom of Roschfallen
Reino de Roschfallen (Portuguese)
Flag Coat of arms
"Infinitum et Ultra"
"To the Infinity and Beyond"
Anthem: "Marche Brasilianna"
"Brazilianni March"
CapitalTriunphus (2014-2021)
Baltar (2021-present)
Official languages Portuguese
Ethnic groups (2017) 60.0% White
39.0% Mixed race
1.0% Black
Demonym Roschfallenian
Government Unitary absolute monarchy
 •  King vacant
 •  Regent Benjamin Azoulay
 •  Protector Fernando Degani
Legislature High Council
Independence from the Federative Republic of Brazil
 •  Declared 28 January 2014 
 •  Constitution 12 October 2015 
 •  Recognition 14 January 2016 
 •  Reorganization 6 June 2019 
 •  Treaty of Víden 29 June 2021 
 •  Total 0.1 km2
0 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 0.01%
 •  2021 estimate 17
HDI (2020)Steady 0.767[1]
Currency Real (R$)a (BRL)
Time zone BRT (UTC−3)
 •  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Calling code +55
Internet TLD .rf
a. Roschfallen has no official national currency and maintains the use of the Brazilian real without an external agreement
b. Official website

Roschfallen, officially the Kingdom of Roschfallen (Portuguese: Reino de Roschfallen), is a enclaved micronation located in South America, completely surrounded by Brazil. At 2 square kilometers at the time of its foundation and with less then a square mile after the Treaty of Víden, Roschfallenian territory was divided into enclaves in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro in three cities and now it's surrounded by the city of São Paulo. The former capital and the most-populated city was Triunphus. Portuguese is the sole official language. Its territory actually comprises a private residence, but at the time of its foundation included several buildings, alongside a vast unexplored natural area of Atlantic forest and a lagoon.

Roschfallen was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the settlement in 1565 by Estácio de Sá, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire as part of it's new colony of Brazil. Roschfallen remained part of Portuguse Brazil until independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, which later became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. In 2014, Roschfallen was created as a micronational project, proclaiming its independence from Brazil and claiming its own private lands as the national territory. Roschallen's first constitution, formulated in 2015, was suspended in June 2019 through a coup d'état and substituted by a new one two months later defining the country as a feudal unitary semi-absolute monarchy.

Roschfallen's economy is based on the added value of its properties, resources and profits. Roschfallen until 2015 had a fast growing economy, mainly based on services and exports of industrial goods. Roschfallen is a founding member of the former Liberal League, an international alliance that brings together nations with liberal policies. Citizenship can be acquired by simply living in one of its territories.

Etimology[edit | edit source]

The name "Roschfallen" is a German surname of a legendary warrior named "Lord Karl Vissen Roschfallen" from the national folklore. According to the myth, Lord Vissen, as he was called, was a Prussian Baron who emigrated to the former territory of Roschfallen, establishing himself in the mountain region. Bearer of mental diseases, the baron proclaimed himself Lord of Roschfallen, proclaiming the independence of his 1.5 kilometers lands. The derivation of the name comes from the medieval Low-Saxon, meaning fallen stone.

Before the proclamation of independence, the members involved in the creation of the new micronation decided to adopt the name Roschfallen for aesthetic reasons in return for the name of indigenous origin that baptized the territories of the nation. Between 28 January and 16 February 2014, the country was officially called the Principality of Roschfallen until its reorganization into a Grand Duchy and its return to the previous Princely state in 2018. In 2019, facing a coup, the country was renamed as a Dominion, and following a treaty, it was renamed again a Kingdom, a designation that oersists to this day.

The new constitution also stipulates that the name of the country be officially treated in documents such as the most serene: The Most Serene Kingdom of the Lands of Roschfallen.

History[edit | edit source]

Foundation[edit | edit source]

Coat of arms form 2014 to 2021.

On 28 January 2014, Arthur Brum established the Throne of Roschfallen, declaring the private property of his family in the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro, Magé and Saquarema as a principality independent from the Federative Republic of Brazil. The first year of Roschfallen's existence were plagued by uncertainty and political instability, but the Grand Duke was able to maintain order and develop the realm. An elective absolute monarchy in the beggining, the country became a hereditary semi-parliamentary monarchy with the Roschfallenian constitution of 2015.

Founded as a principality, the country soon became a Grand Duchy - only to return to be a Principality - when the former Grand Diet proclaimed Arthur, then Prince of Roschfallen as Grand Duke in 16 February 2014, conferring on him full powers. In the following months the political structure of Roschfallen was created based on the structure of the Holy Roman Empire, with the state divided into several duchies under the suzerainty of the current Prince, following the basic laws of state. In 30 April 2014, Lord Thales Fernandes was named the first Captain Regent of Roschfallen, as a co-Head of Government. With the Grand Duke, they had appointed the first ministerial cabinet. The monarch was solely responsible for appointing the judiciary officials; The Captain Regent was responsible for structuring the ministries; both made the first legal appointments to the Grand Diet. In July 2014, the Diet was renamed "Council of Fools" as a way of representing the participation of the people in the national policy of the nobles.

During this period, a national aristocracy surfaced and their powers acquired uncontrollable proportions and soon started to press for a democratic election for Grand Duke. Fearing to lose his power, the Grand Duke issued a new constitution establishing a hereditary monarchy and reformulating the system of government with a semi-parliamentary facade, while the Grand Duke still retained absolute powers over a politically controlled parliament.

Consolidation[edit | edit source]

Arthur Brum, Founder of Roschfallen.

By August 2015, with national policy stabilized, the national economy started to grow again, despite the strong economic crisis affecting the neighboring nation. The Roschfallenian government expanded its territory through a process of possession in the Brazilian justice system through an indemnity in the amount of US$10.000 dollars at the time.

On 12 October 2015, a new Constitution come to effect. Well established, the central government had defined an international policy of mutual recognition among South American micronations to be followed up to the new year. On 14 January 2016, the Empire of Schneeblutig became the first micronation to recognize the independence and sovereignty of Roschfallen through a treaty of mutual recognition. Through the same treaty, Emperor Petar I granted to Grand Duke Arthur the courtesy title of Prince of Schneeblutig.

Contemporary Era[edit | edit source]

On August 2016, with the repercussion of the Brazilian political crisis and the positive reaction of the market, Roschfallen continued to thrive until December, as changes made in the economic policy of its neighbor caused exaltation and uncertainty about the directions of the Brazilian economy, consequently the crisis reached Roschfallen in full, causing a slight but slow economic recession. This very year, in November, the Council of Fools voted and passed a constitutional amendment that drastically enlarged the monarch's power.

Facing the economic problems, the Prince prostrated himself for the sake of helpfulness, giving his all to help to face the turbulent period for which the nation passed. Protests erupted throughout Rochfallen against the economic policy of then Minister of Finance Carlos Manoel dos Santos. Pressed by the population and parliament, the minister was fired and replaced by the then-Administrator of the capital, Reynald Loss.

Roschfallen was only able to completely get out of the economic crisis in July 2017 when it began receiving the first profits from the acquisition and expansion of its Western territory. Between December 2017 and January 2018, the country underwent serious administrative reforms to cut spending and soften bureaucracy. On February 2018, negotiations began with the Karno-Ruthenian government for the incorporation of the then Grand Duchy to the Karno-Ruthenian Empire. On 28 February, Karnia-Ruthenia recognized the independence of Roschfallen and starting a fruitful relation with Roschfallen, which was accepted bringing great honor and salutes to all across the nation. On 20 August 2018, the country underwent a structural and administrative reform and returned to the status of principality, what was kept until 06 June 2019 when, facing another political crisis, the Sovereign Prince proclaimed himself as Lord and reorganized the state into an autocracy. After the turmoil, both monarch and the aristocracy reached an agreement through the Treaty of Acquitane, which created a new constitution proclaiming the country a Kingdom under a semi-absolute monarchy.

Treaty of Víden[edit | edit source]

On 27 June 2021, the rulers of Roschfallen, Ebenthal and Karnia-Ruthenia met in order to discuss their goals in micronationalism. While Ebenthal and Karnia-Ruthenia enjoyed a moment of expansion, Roschfallen was in collapse, with citizens leaving, the government in a hiatus that lasted for almost two years and almost no expression in foreign affairs. Considering the lack of will of Fernando Degani, successor of Arthur Brum, in keep ruling and how Roschfallen was under Ebenthali influence, an agreement was made: Fernando would abdicate to the Throne, finishing his two-year reign.

The cost of this change of sphere of influence was the independence of the Lateran State, that would eventually fall in the Ebenthali sphere of influence, while Roschfallen would join the Conference of Santiago and the Imperial Circle, and Fernando would act as Regent until the election of the new ruler. Even the territory would suffer a dramatic change - it was the first time the Nomadic Micronation Theory was used in Karno-Ruthenian affairs and, as result, the location of the kingdom changed from Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo, abandoning the claims to Gros Morne, Seine Oceanic, Avalon, Iriland, Menoram and the capital, Triunphus.

The motivation behind the Karno-Ruthenian interests in Roschfallen was to secure a royal status to the family of their future Empress consort, who should have to be from noble background due the provisions of the House Law of the Karno-Ruthenian Imperial Family. However, with the prestigious union of Oscar I to Infanta Maria Isabel Haiane of the United Provinces of Mauritia, this was no longer necessary, but the treaty was already completed, leaving the throne vacant for more time then expected by all signatoires and prolonging the time of Fernando in power.

Despite initial talks in order to place Archduchess Alice of Karnia in the Roschfallenian throne under the protection of Karnia-Ruthenia, Oscar I promptly dismissed the idea, since his daughter was "too young being just seven years-old" and "unaware of the responsabilities that a Crown may bring". On 20 November 2021, Fernando Degani finally left his position of Head of State, and became Protector for life of Roschfallen, a cerimonial title. The throne remained vacant, but the executive powers were vested on Benjamin Azoulay, Brazilian micronationalist with Réunion background.

On 21 February 2022, the Imperial Circle was dissolved, and Roschfallen reaquired a more autonomous foreign policy, but still close of Karnia-Ruthenia, that guaranteed its independence.

Geography[edit | edit source]

Roschfallen was first located on the far western part of a strip of South America's Atlantic coast, enclaved in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, Magé and Saquarema), close to the Tropic of Capricorn, where the shoreline is oriented east–west, and only share land borders with Brazil. It also encompassed a number of oceanic tiny islands, such as Bacaxá Rocks, Our Lady Rocks and Jaconé Island. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Roschfallen geographically simple, with Atlantic forests and a Subtropical climate.

Now, bordering the city of Votorantim, Roschfallen is located in a mountainous region and it has an average altitude of 1,827 ft, with a tropical weather and annual average temperature is 20 degrees.

With a total area of 0.1 km², Roschfallen spanned only one time zone, the UTC−3, and the summet time zone UTC−2. Roschfallenian topography was also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lied between 200 metres and 400 metres. The northern region of the country was rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountains that were natural borders with Brazil.

Besides that, from 21 August 2019 until 29 June 2021, Roschfallen also claimed the Antarctican territory of Marie Byrd Land. This claimed never was recognized by Karnia-Ruthenia and were dropped when King Fernando I of Roschfallen signed the Treaty of Víden, reorganizing the national territory, transferred to São Paulo.

Climate[edit | edit source]

The climate of Roschfallen comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography. According to the Köppen system, Roschfallen hosts three major climatic subtypes: tropical, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from tropical rainforests in the east and subtropical vegetation in the west, to temperate coniferous forests in the north. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.

The country experiences hot, humid summers, and mild, wet winters. In inland areas of the city, temperatures above 40°C (104°F) are common during the summer, though rarely for long periods, while maximum temperatures above 27°C (81°F) can occur on a monthly basis. Along the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the country is often reached by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, especially during autumn and winter, causing frequent weather changes. In summer there can be strong rains, which have on some occasions provoked catastrophic floods and landslides. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic.

Government and politics[edit | edit source]

Military[edit | edit source]

The armed forces of Roschfallen consisted from 2014 to 2021 of the Royal Army (including the Army Aviation Command), the Royal Light Navy, the Royal Air Force and the Royal Police. Numbering total 22 active personnel, being 12 members of the army, 8 members of the navy and 2 members of the Air Foce. The Royal Police was described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but were under the control of the National Government.

The Royal Army's main function was to protect the most isolated regions of the nation from external and internal threats; the Royal Light Navy's main function was to patrol the maritime borders and the Royal Air Force, the lesser Roschfallenian armed force, that consisted of three drones, was responsible for flying over and patrolling the country's airspace.

Roschfallen has not been attacked since 2016, when Brazilians invaded the national territory illegaly. They were hunted and leave the country lands. Two of them were shot, and one was taken by the police. After the Treaty of Víden, the armed forces were abolished.

Roschfallen is still served by the Brazilian Military Firefighters Corps.

Foreign policy[edit | edit source]

Flag of Schneeblutig, the first micronation to recognize Roschfallen.

Roschfallens's international relations are based on non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and coordenation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Roschfallen's relationship with other micronations and multilateral organizations.

Roschfallen's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional micronational power within the state of São Paulo and thanks to its liberal citizenship policy. Roschfalleniann foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.

Micronations recognized[edit | edit source]

Administrative divisions[edit | edit source]

Roschfallen is a unitary state. Formally, it was composed of 5 repartitions and 1 private hold (the capital city, Triunphus) and 8 feudal holds, each one controlled by a noble. The repartitions were administrated by an appointed High Comissioner submissive to the King personally. Charge different tax rates, according to the social-economic differences in each state, which were sent to the central bank of Triunphus. The states have a administrator, called Captain and a legislative assistant council, appointed by the Captain. The capital district was personally ruled by the King. Roschfallen was divided into:

After the Treaty of Víden, the kingdom became an unitary city-state.

Infrastructure[edit | edit source]

Science and technology[edit | edit source]

Technological research in Roschfallen was largely carried out by the government in research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from the profits of its investments in the financial market. Roschfallen's most esteemed technological hubs were the Acer Institute, the Ovonel Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Gros Morne Agricultural Research Corporation and the Imperial Schneeblutigan Agency in Roschfallen, all left behind after the transfer of the kingdom to São Paulo. Most of its patrimony were assumed or transferred to the Kingdom of Ebenthal.

Transport[edit | edit source]

Roschfallenian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. All roads in Roschfallen are paved, with the first investments in road infrastructure dating back 2014, soon after the independence, by the Minister of Infrastructure of that time, Marcelo Penna. Roschfalleanian roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Brazil. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, all Roschfallenian roads are privatized. The car market is dominated by Toyota, (57% of cars sold in Roschfallen as of 2016), Jeep (30%) and Renault (13%). Over 70% of new cars sold in 2016 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.

Health[edit | edit source]

The Roschfallenian public health system, the Public Health Service, is managed and provided by all levels of government by the Brazilian Unified Health System, whose services are extended to Roschfallen through a unilateral agreement. On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a major role. Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free.

Education[edit | edit source]

Federal Univerity of Rio de Janeiro, the most frequented college by the Roschfallenians.

According to the Roschfallenian Institute of Database and Estatistics (IRDE), in 2015, the literacy rate of the population was 96.0%, meaning that 3 people (4% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population. Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense.

Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten, elementary and medium educations are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing. As the territory of Roschfallen does not have space for the construction of an educational institution, the country has unilateral agreements with Brazil for the use of its educational system. Currently the university most frequented by Roschfallenians is Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, ranked 7th the best university in Latin America, according to QS World University Rankings.

Demographics[edit | edit source]

The population of Roschfallen, as recorded by the 2015 PNAD, was approximately 211 people, with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 85.64% of the population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated in the Northern (79 inhabitants) and Southern (55 inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the North and the East, which together make up 60% of the Roschfallenian territory, have a total of only 83 inhabitants.

The first census in Roschfallen was carried out in 2015 and recorded a population of 197 inhabitants. From 2015 to 2018, 12 Brazilians and 2 Portuguese arrived. Roschfallenian's population increased significantly between 2017 and 2018, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 2010s, the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 2020s according estimatives and remaining at 2.9% in the 2025s, as life expectancy rose from 78 to 81 years and to 83 years in 2016. It has been steadily falling since the 2010s, from 3.04% per year between 2010 and 2015 to 1.05% in 2018 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050 thus completing the demographic transition.

By 2021, the numbers declined significantly, dropping by 6 on Deceber 2021.

Race and ethnicity[edit | edit source]

According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2015, 59% of the population described themselves as White; 35% as Mixed race; 5,5% as Black of different ethnicities; and 0,5% as Asian, mainly (99%) chinese.

Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable miscegenation between local Amerindians and [w:European|Europeans]] has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 90% to 98%).

Roschfallenian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although some income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.

From the 19th century, Roschfallen opened its borders to immigration. Hundreds of people from over 10 countries migrated to Roschfallenian current territory between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, German, Swiss, French, Chinese and Brazilian.

Religion[edit | edit source]

The Basilica of the Holy Heart of Mary is the Roman Catholic church frequented by most Rochenfallenians.

Roschfallen is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. Roschfallen has no official church, and the government is officially committed to religious secularism. Freedom of religion in Roschfallen is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference. The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state. According to the 2021 census, 97% of Roschfallenians identify as Christian, while 3% declared no religious affiliation.

Language[edit | edit source]

The official language of Roschfallen is Portuguese, which all of the population speaks and is practically the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. The exception to this is the English, which was recognized as secondary and business language by the Kingdom of Roschfallen. In 2014 the Council of Fools legally recognized the use of the Brazilian Sign Language as official language to deaf people; the law was regulated in 2015. The law mandates the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language should be taught as a part of the curriculum and language and language pathology curriculum. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services should provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "2016 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css must have content model "Sanitized CSS" for TemplateStyles (current model is "Scribunto module").